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                                          辛亥文物
                                          一塊辛亥英烈墓碑的故事
                                          盧潔峰

                                            廣州為革命策源地,一城的先烈身影,一城的英雄史跡,身居其中,難免有一種“先烈情結”。于是,尋找、保護革命先烈的墳塋墓碑,為這座英雄城市增光添彩,便成為我的一種生活常態。近日,為考證一項史實,筆者二次前往太和鎮的大窩嶺,在數百畝的墓地中,尋尋覓覓。下山時,一座幾乎被針葉松和簕杜鵑全覆蓋的方柱碑,引起了我的注意,蹲下細看碑文,興奮得立即“彈”了起來———“史憬然三”,“陳白題”!碑之右側,還刻有銘文!真個是“踏破鐵鞋無覓處,得來全不費工夫”。我遇見史憬然的墓碑了———這是很多近代史研究者都知道,卻始終無人親見的一方墓碑,其背后,更隱藏著一段鮮為人知,動人心魄的故事。

                                            一、碑主誰人

                                            只見碑面有4個骨氣洞達的陰刻大字:“史憬然三”。顯然,碑主為史憬然。史憬然誰人?烈士史堅如的胞妹。要了解史憬然,須先了解史堅如。

                                            史堅如,廣東番禺人,1879年6月24日出生于廣州的一戶大紳人家。其先祖本居浙紹興山陰,后落籍廣東,其祖名史澄,曾任翰林院編修、國子監司業,后回廣州從事文教事業,主持編撰《番禺縣志》《廣州府志》。史堅如七歲而孤,體幼多病,曾從三四師讀書而不合其志,后入讀廣州教會學校格致書院(嶺南學堂,嶺南大學的前身)。在格致書院,史堅如接觸到了西學的自由、平等、博愛思想,使之產生了改造中國的志向。1899年底,史堅如到香港,經陳少白介紹,加入興中會,走上革命道路。

                                            后孫中山的日本友人宮崎寅藏以帶領赴日留學為名,同史堅如自香港乘船赴上海等地從事革命活動。在香港旅社和赴上海的船中,宮崎與史堅如有過長時間筆談。史堅如沿長江聯絡哥老會之后,去日本見興中會領袖孫中山。1900年春,史堅如回到香港,協助陳少白辦《中國日報》,宣傳革命。

                                            1900年春夏之交,北方義和團運動進入高潮。孫中山決定在廣東大舉起義,派鄭士良入惠州發動起義,鄧蔭南、史堅如在廣州響應,陳少白、楊衢云留香港接濟……10月3日,鄭土良發動會黨。民眾,在惠州三洲田起義,并連續取得勝利。然而,史堅如早前聯絡妥當的會黨、防營,卻因缺乏餉械而陷于瓦解狀態。史堅如不得不冒險一搏,計劃用炸藥炸毀廣東巡撫衙門(大致是今廣州人民公園、市政府一帶),炸死廣東巡撫兼署理兩廣總督德壽,以配合惠州起義。

                                            史堅如等四人在靠近廣東巡撫衙門附近租下房屋,往德壽寢室挖地道,安放20 0磅炸藥,謀炸德壽。第一次燃點藥線失敗。史堅如安頓同志乘船下香港后,返回住處獨自操作,終于在10月28日凌晨,引爆炸藥。惜未傷及德壽。10月29日,史堅如準備搭乘輪船返回香港,因有人告密,在前往碼頭的途中,不幸被捕。

                                            德壽命將史堅如押入南海縣署,軟硬兼施,迫令供狀,史堅如雖備受酷刑而始終不屈,卒被殺害于1900年11月9日。

                                            孫中山高度評價史堅如,稱他是繼陸皓東之后“為共和殉難之第二健將”,“浩氣英風,實足為后死者之模范。”宮崎寅藏在其回憶錄《三十三年之夢》中贊揚這位“美少年”革命家,“容貌如玉,膽大如斗”,是“中國革命之天使!”

                                            史憬然出生于1883年,比史堅如小4歲,在兄妹中排行第三,故有“憬然三姑”之稱。雖3歲喪父,但“其家素豐”,衣食無憂,史家兄妹三人(古愚、堅如、憬然),均接受良好的教育。繼史堅如入讀格致書院后,史憬然也進入廣州博濟醫院習醫,她對于同學極為謙讓,有一次,天寒上課,因為教室沒有生火,改在手術室授課。怎知手術室椅桌不多,同學有爭座位的,三姑即把座位讓出,自己坐在地上,用手帕墊著坐做筆記。史憬然的度量品格,由此可見一斑。

                                            1899年,正是孫中山革命最艱難,興中會前途最黑暗之時。當時能理解革命的人極少,但名門貴胄史堅如,卻敢冒殺頭的風險,義無反顧地加入興中會。妹妹史憬然也一直全力支持哥哥從事革命活動。馮自由稱:“憬然屢襄堅如義舉,沈毅勇敢,不讓乃兄。”190 0年10月惠州起義前,為了解除哥哥的后顧之憂,她與母親遷居澳門。史堅如犧牲后,她繼承哥哥的遺志,繼續參加興中會的革命活動。

                                            二、陳白誰人

                                            陳白,字葵石,又號少白,世稱陳少白,廣東新會人,馮自由稱贊其“風姿俊美,才思敏捷,詩詞歌賦,琴棋書畫,無所不通,”是一個才子。他是孫中山香港西醫書院的同學,與孫中山等并稱反清“四大寇”。陳少白是興中會時期孫中山最親密和重要的助手,革命黨創立第一份機關報《中國日報》,他首任社長兼總編輯,孫中山早期的起義,他都參與策劃。

                                            當年,在香港的中國日報社,史堅如見到了仰慕已久的陳少白,當得知陳少白早年就讀于廣州格致書院,是自己的校友后,更平添了一份親切感。正是陳少白,引導史堅如加入興中會,走上革命道路的。史堅如的妹妹史憬然,也因此而認識陳少白。陳少白十分喜歡這對天使般的史家兄妹,三人志同道合,相交相知。陳少白稱史堅如“聰明忠實,很有志氣”,“沉毅真摯”,“極堅決,且有毅力”;稱史憬然品高如玉,是哲人,是知己。顯然,在陳少白心目中,史憬然已不可或缺。

                                            史堅如犧牲后,前有一妻的陳少白,對烈士的妹妹史憬然,陡增了一份責任。于是而向史憬然表白,求婚。當時,一夫多妻并不違反道德風俗。但大哥史古愚反對這樁婚事。憬然是受過良好教育的新女性,尊重陳少白的真情,但不急于成婚,遂前往廣州。

                                            1902年,史憬然到廣州后,與革命女黨人張竹君一起,辦育賢女學。因用冷水調牛乳吃,不幸感染霍亂,戕于時疫,年僅19歲。陳少白聞之,不勝悲愴,遂為史憬然題書碑名,并請大匠,用香港花崗石,為史憬然打造了一座墓碑,運上省城。入秋,教友們將史憬然安葬在三望崗的耶教墳場。

                                            三、大窩嶺墓地

                                            清末民初,廣州的教會事業頗為興盛。1930年代后期至1940年代,六堂四會在今永福路一帶以及沙河、河南、芳村等城郊地段,建有十數處大小不等的教會墳場。1951年,廣州市房管局在市郊劃定寶鴨岡、琪雞岡、大窩嶺等三處為教會公墓。1952- 1959年,六堂四會各墳場,先后遷往前述三處安置地。除寶鴨岡后來改為火葬場之外,廣州市現有琪雞岡與大窩嶺兩處基督教墳場。

                                            1950年代以前,三望崗(位于黃花崗公園東北側)上的耶教墳場,是廣州郊外最大的一座耶教墳場。在1950年代的教會墳場大遷移中,該墳場內的中國教徒墓碑,集中遷往大窩嶺安置。暫時留置的外國傳教士及其家屬的墳墓和墓碑,則多毀于十年動亂期間。幸存的46塊碑,于1970年代遷往大窩嶺,安置在大窩嶺西側一塊66平方米的墓地中。

                                            史憬然在三望崗耶教墳場中的墓碑,正是在1950年代的大拆遷中,被遷移到大窩嶺的。當然,史憬然的墳墓,并沒有隨遷。

                                            四、史憬然墓碑的現狀

                                            1902- 2018年,史憬然的墓碑,在沉睡了116年之后,終于被我遇見了!上蒼知我,上蒼犒我。頃刻間,我仿佛走進了時光隧道,我要向史憬然報告,向陳少白報告。

                                            我所見到的史憬然的墓碑,碑面只有“史憬然三”4個字,最下面一個字,只露出一小截近似于草花頭的筆畫。不熟悉史堅如、史憬然歷史的人,是猜不出這個字的。據我推測,碑面全名應為“史憬然三姑之墓”。

                                            “史憬然三”的碑高,約為1 .3米。以此推算,“姑之墓”加碑腳,至少也有1 .2米。換言之,史憬然墓碑至少有2 .5米高。以筆者陋見,史憬然墓碑已經被鑿斷,此碑埋在土里的,恐怕只有“姑”字所在的0.2-0.3米長,而非“姑之墓”加碑腳的1 .2米長。一座墓碑高約2 .5米的墳墓,其規模是可以想象的。惜筆者雖花費很多功夫,卻一直無法找到史憬然之墓的照片或文字記錄。

                                            我見到的碑文,有兩面,一是碑面的“史憬然三”、“陳白題”。二是碑右側的墓志銘。由于墓碑非全碑,故,其碑文也是不完整的。幸而陸丹林在《革命史譚》有記錄,稱:

                                            少白深痛三姑的歷助革命,壯志未酬,遽然去世……在公在私,都有無限悲愴,于是親撰墓銘勒碑,永留紀念。詞曰:

                                            雄心脈脈,寒碑三尺。后死須眉,爾塋爾宅。國人欲復,哲人不歸。吾族所悲,異族所期。玉已含山,海難為水。蹇蹇此躬,悠悠知己。天蒼兮地黃,春露兮秋霜。胡虜兮未滅,何以慰吾之國殤。生于一八八一辛巳,終于一九零二年壬寅,共享年二十二。

                                            撫碑誦讀,不禁感同身受,潸然淚下!

                                            細看史憬然墓碑可見,碑面的“史憬然三”與“陳白題”以及碑右側的墓志銘,并非出自同一工匠之手。后二者,顯然是后來所加勒。

                                            先看碑面,顯然,“史憬然三”與“陳白題”出自兩位不同匠人之手。前者是大匠杰作,后者是工匠所為。換言之,二者并非同時刻勒。為何同一方墓碑,要分兩次刻勒?

                                            “陳白”是清朝不容的“四大寇”之一,革命黨第一黨報《中國日報》的社長兼總編輯。如果1902年史憬然落葬時,就在史憬然的墓碑上刻“陳白題”三字,史憬然之墓可能會被清朝官吏所搗毀。

                                            再看碑右側,右側的墓志銘,與碑面“陳白題”,同出于一人之手。墓志銘中“吾族所悲,異族所期”、“胡虜兮未滅,何以慰吾之國殤”等語,在1902年,是絕對不可能公開刻在碑上的。由此可見,史憬然墓碑右側之銘文,以及碑面落款的“陳白題”三字,應是辛亥革命后所加勒。經過近10年的沉淀和升華,陳少白把自己對為中國民主革命而犧牲的無數革命先烈的懷念之情,全部傾訴于這篇銘文上了。

                                            朋友,讓我們一起進入時光隧道,去給史堅如、史憬然、陳少白,以及那些為中華民族的光明和進步,英勇犧牲的先烈先賢鞠一個躬、獻一朵花吧!

                                            五、結語

                                            筆者遇見的史憬然墓碑,是孫中山的親密戰友陳少白,為史堅如烈士的妹妹、興中會同志史憬然所建立并題書的墓碑,她是廣州辛亥革命一件重要而珍貴的文物。很多近代史研究者、文獻提到史憬然之墓,卻始終無人親見史憬然之墓,遑論史憬然的墓碑。筆者找到了,這是筆者之幸,更是廣州辛亥革命史學界、文物界之幸。

                                            無論是琪雞岡還是大窩嶺基督教公墓,墓地都是有限的,凡長期無人祭掃的墳墓和墓碑,就會被移除。

                                            我所見到的史憬然墓碑,已被放置在墓區西側的路邊了,碑旁有綠化樹,遠看還以為是一根支撐樹木的石樁。碑上文字無一絲填紅的痕跡。顯然,已經很久很久無人祭掃了。惟碑側的墓志銘上,隱約可見一丁點兒白灰痕跡。這說明,有人曾經試圖識讀碑文。史憬然的墓碑,已經處于危險的邊緣。急需搶救、保護。

                                            希望我的“遇見”,能夠引起有關部門應有的重視,盡快采取措施,切實保護史憬然墓碑,搶救這件廣州辛亥革命的重要文物,以慰英靈,以垂久遠。

                                            ◎盧潔峰,歷史學者,現居廣州。

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