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                                          ·蔣介石與他的假想之敵胡適
                                          ·從“國民性改造”看孫中山的德育觀
                                          ·北京:孫中山革命抵達之處
                                          ·澳門:孫中山走向世界的第一站
                                          ·孫中山民主共和思想的來源
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                                          辛亥風云
                                          從“國民性改造”看孫中山的德育觀
                                          曾荔枝

                                            一、孫中山德育觀的形成

                                            自1840年鴉片戰爭列強入侵以來,中國遭受一次又一次的侵略、屈辱和壓迫,民族危機日重。這期間,從洋務運動學習西方的堅船利炮,資產階級改良派開展戊戌維新,再到資產階級革命派效仿西方的政治制度建立民國政府,一系列救亡圖存活動充滿坎坷。在對西方的器物、制度層面的學習失敗后,20世紀初,中國許多仁人志士轉向思想文化層面,反思和批判數千年封建專制統治造就的國民劣根性,試圖通過國民性的改造,達到救亡圖存的目的。一批中國近代啟蒙思想家如梁啟超、章太炎、陳獨秀等指出國民性格中保守、狹隘、閉塞、缺乏理性、奴性、自私自利,缺乏國家觀念、民族意識和社會的公德等方面的群族弱點阻礙了中國政治實現民主共和的進步。

                                            出生于19世紀60年代的孫中山在青少年時期便立志改良祖國,拯救同胞,在領導辛亥革命創建民國后國內依然動蕩不堪,及至開展國共合作,隨著革命實踐的深入,孫中山先生的德育思想經過了一個從萌芽、發展到最終確立的階段。在遭受了二次革命、兩次護法運動等革命的失敗后,孫中山感慨:“一國之趨勢,為萬眾人心理所造成,若其勢已成,則斷非一二因利乘便之人之智力所可轉移也。”民國初年共和國命運動亂,孫中山越發認識到國民性改造的重要性,“人心就是立國的大根本”,晚年的孫中山則更重視并多次提到改造整個國民社會心理的重要性。

                                            二、孫中山德育觀的主要內容

                                            作為革命家,孫中山首先從革命和國家的角度去思考、關注國民德育問題。在革命實踐尤其是經歷系列的革命挫折后,孫中山清楚地意識到國民的程度、國民素質狀態與國家的政治、經濟、文化等的發展密切相關,并希冀以“注重體育、智育、德育三項,改良人類來救國”。從內容上來看,孫中山德育思想主要包括愛國主義教育、理想教育和道德教育三個方面。

                                            “國民須人人有愛國心”,孫中山非常重視對國人的愛國主義教育,并通過革命實踐、報刊宣傳等改造國人心態,喚醒國人的愛國熱情和行動。“當把從前之奴隸性質,盡數拋卻,各具一種愛國心,將國家一切事件,群策群力,盡心辦理,萬不能視國家事為分外事。能如是,中國前途,自有莫大之希望。”“以革命開民智”,孫中山鍥而不舍的領導資產階段革命,革命戰士用鮮血和犧牲換取民族獨立和社會民主。在孫中山愛國主義思想的影響下,革命派創辦的報刊有120多種,其中日報60多種,期刊50多種,發行數最高時達2萬多份。革命輿論向國人敲響了民族生死存亡的警鐘,激發全國人民的愛國熱情。

                                            在理想教育方面,孫中山倡導人們立志“做大事”,而不是汲于“做大官”。孫中山認為“做大官”的志向是“舊思想的立志”,其目的是“專注重發達個人”、“為個人謀幸福”;而立志“做大事”則“為大家謀幸福”,“有一種具體結果,貢獻到人類,便是一件很大的事。”如何樹立正確的政治理想呢,孫中山認為“第一,學生須要明白中國地位,第二,學生須要認定自己責任。能了解于斯二者,然后可與言志。”孫中山希望青年學生能立志“救貧救弱”,用革命行動把落后動蕩的國家變為獨立自主、富強文明的中國。

                                            對于道德教育,孫中山提出“有道德始有國家,有道德始成世界”,他主張以人格強國,而道德的提升即是人格進化的最重要標準。在對照西方文明時,孫中山認為中國傳統的民族精神核心即是道德精神。孫中山希冀構建近代道德規范,用“天下為公”的革命理想培育國民的公德心,號召人們為國家獨立、為同胞福祉服務。在公開的演講中,孫中山將黃花崗烈士舍身取義的精神解釋為崇高人格,宣揚“這種替眾人來服務的新道德,就是世界道德的新潮流。烈士有許多是有本領學問的人,他們舍身救國,視死如歸,為眾人來服務的那種道德觀念,就是感受了這種新道德的潮流”,號召國人學習黃花崗烈士的犧牲精神和崇高人格。

                                            三、孫中山國民德育改造觀的啟示

                                            孫中山在長期革命實踐中對國民性的認識從最初的過于樂觀到深刻認知現狀,1918年,孫中山在總結民主革命奮斗30余年屢遭失敗的教訓時,清楚地認識到國家的根基是建筑在國人思想之上,“國家之興亡,政治之隆污,系乎人心之振糜”。孫中山的德育觀融合了中西方道德文明特點,富有時代性、民族性、繼承性等鮮明特點。孫中山認為沒有道德,國家就不能生存,中國若要永遠屹立于世,必須以道德為基礎,惟有維持高的道德標準,國家才有希望置于不墜,長治久安。

                                            孫中山先生特別強調通過德育教育來實現對國民素養的提升,并通過公開演講、創辦報刊等途徑反復開展闡釋和宣傳。周恩來曾說:“中國人民崇敬孫中山先生,首先因為他是一個偉大的愛國者,是為我們祖國的獨立和自由而奮斗終身的戰士。”(《人民日報》1955年3月13日)

                                            ◎曾荔枝,電子科技大學中山學院教師。

                                          (來源:《南方都市報》)

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