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                                          古番禺曾是野生大象生活之區

                                             象牙在今天,已經被禁止貿易。中國從2018年1月1日起全面禁止國內象牙商業性加工和銷售,成為全球打擊象牙非法貿易措施最嚴格的國家,為全世界作出表率。這讓大象這種壯觀的動物得到了較好的保護。但在古代世界,象牙卻是一種世界性的商品,和包括各種珍禽異獸在內的自然物產一樣,經由海陸的網絡運輸到各地。  

                                          清代中期 樓閣人物圖方盒 
                                          11層象牙球工序系列樣品
                                           
                                          19世紀 通雕人物故事花卉紋提梁蓋籃 

                                          西漢陶象牙 取材于非洲象

                                            在歐洲的博物館和宮殿中,我們能看到大量的象牙制品,比如小雕刻掛件、匕首手柄,甚至有用象牙裝飾的寶座。在南越王趙眜的墓中,也有5支扎在一起, 牙體粗壯, 長達120厘米左右的非洲象牙。 

                                            西方人也曾經大量制作象牙器物 

                                            過去幾千年來,象牙制品由于象征潔白、高貴,而備受富人階層推崇。歐洲的象牙大多數來自于非洲、南亞。在希臘,象牙常常配合鍍金使用,大多數雕刻形象為希臘神話的神祗形象,比如雅典娜等。今天的西非國家科特迪瓦,國名源自法語,直譯就是“象牙海岸”,也是因為這里曾經盛產作為商品的象牙。在一些歐洲早期航海家的記述中,我們常能看到他們用歐洲生產的小物件,與非洲原住民交換包括象牙在內的各種土特產的描寫。 

                                            古代象牙的用途很廣泛,1976 年,河南省安陽市殷墟婦好墓出土象牙杯3 件。象牙和犀角也可制作印章,并且和古代禮制相關,如《續漢書·輿服下》:“佩雙印,長寸二分,方六分。乘輿、諸侯王、公、列侯以白玉,中二千石以下至四百石皆以黑犀,二百石以至私學弟子皆以象牙。” 

                                            廣州南越王墓是出土象牙器及其殘件比較集中的墓葬。據發掘報告《西漢南越王墓》中的《器物登記總表》記錄, “象牙及其他”一類中,象牙器及其殘件包括象牙算籌、印章、卮、筒、飾物、飾片、棋子以及原支象牙等。部分器物的數量還很大,如象牙算籌多達200件。除了前室和后藏室沒有發現象牙和象牙制品外,其他墓室均有出土。可見當時南越地區有珍視象牙和以之為器的風氣。 

                                            文博學者李穗梅指出,在史書里象牙常常被與犀角并列,“但在明代以前,犀角僅作為藥材而使用,幾乎不用來制作工藝品。象牙則不同,因其質細膩、溫潤且典雅,早在舊石器時期,已被制作成精美的工藝品。迄今發現最早的象牙制品出土于河姆渡遺址,距今已有7000年的歷史。在距今5000年的大汶口文化遺址中,也出土了象牙梳、筒、珠等。1976年出土了商晚期(3000多年前)的象牙觥, 其飾制仿青銅器, 相當繁復精致。” 

                                            嶺南的象牙制作始于新石器時代晚期,在佛山市瀾石河宕舊墟墓葬中,就有兩座墓隨葬有象牙器。其中一墓葬中的人骨,右手腕上佩戴有象牙環一件和一件象牙頭飾, 另一墓葬則有一對制作精美、薄如蛋殼、光澤潤滑的束腰象牙筒,置放在墓主人的頭頂。李穗梅認為,從其放置位置和用途推測, 可稱之為象牙冠,“嶺南史前墓葬未見過此等精致的象牙飾物隨葬品。這是嶺南地區象牙雕刻的原始形態。” 

                                            嶺南曾是象牙集散地 

                                            作為珍貴之物的象牙,來源主要有二: 

                                            一是中國本地產。史書記載古代中國產象,而嶺南溫潤氣候更適合大象的生長。許慎《說文解字》曰“南越大獸,長鼻牙,三年一乳,象耳、牙、四足、尾之形。”在漢代,南越人還將捕獲后的大象加以馴化,在接待漢使者時,“樓前設舞象。曲動樂作,倡優引入一象,以金羈絡首,錦檐垂身,隨拍騰踏,動頭搖尾,皆合節奏”。 

                                            著名歷史地理學者曾昭璇曾指出,中國象的分布區向南退縮非常明顯。在《孟子》中還有記載:“周公相武王……驅虎豹、犀、象而遠之”,晉文公重耳回國時也對楚王說:“羽、毛、齒、革,君地生焉。其波及晉國者,君之余也。” 《山海經》中記載岷山“其獸多犀、象”,這些都說明秦嶺山區在春秋戰國時期仍有象分布。 

                                            但秦漢以后,特別是唐代以后,象已經僅在南方,甚至是熱帶地區才有分布了。珠江三角洲古代為沼澤平原,每年洪水泛濫,平原積水成為沼澤。低地蘆葦叢生,丘陵地上又林木繁茂,正是喜水的象群的生活環境。今天平原中也發現不少象骨化石。漢晉以后古籍中有許多關于廣東產象的記載,如南朝宋王韶之《始興記》即說“掃水口有長洲,洲廣十里, 平林蔚然,有群象、野牛”。即是粵北象群的記錄。唐代象的記錄更加詳盡,《嶺表錄異》稱“廣之屬郡潮、振州,多野象,潮、循人或捕得象,爭食其鼻,云肥胞,尤堪作炙”。這說明象在當時不僅數量眾多,而且是本地人餐桌上的美味。宋代象群在南方各地分布仍廣。除陽山、始興的粵北山區,在西江谷地也有不少,粵東、閩南山地亦有象群分布。十萬大山象群,經1385年“命南通侯率兵二萬驅捕”才滅絕。珠江三角洲也出土過漢代的象頭半化石以及唐、宋時代的象骨。當然,在象群逐漸向南退縮的過程中,人類活動的影響只是其中一個因素,自然環境,特別是氣候的變化,也是非常重要的原因。 

                                            第二個來源則是進口。《廣州象崗南越王墓出土動物遺骸的鑒定》認為,出土于西耳室的原支象牙“與現生非洲象較為接近,而與現生亞洲象區別較明顯。現生亞洲象僅雄性具象牙, 而且象牙通常較纖細;非洲象則雌雄兩性均具有象牙,雄性象牙較大而粗壯,雌性象牙較小而纖細……但因標本保存不佳,故尚難確定其種名。”李穗梅指出,這說明南越國時期與非洲有一定的交往。另外,當時的東南亞、南亞一帶也向番禺輸入犀、象等珍貴物品。特別需要說明的是,與大象不同,犀牛產自東南亞、印度和亞洲,嶺南所無,所以犀角純為外域之物。 

                                            無論是本地產還是從國外輸入,嶺南都曾是象牙集散地。 

                                            為了節儉 古人用木象牙、陶象牙替代 

                                            實際上,除了真正的象牙,廣東以及周邊地區發現的象牙模型也不少。比如,1960 年,廣東省廣州市1153 號西漢墓中出土陶質象牙5件、陶質犀角4件;1134號西漢墓出土陶質犀角15件;3009號東漢墓出土陶質犀角2件。1972年,湖南省長沙市馬王堆1號西漢墓339號竹笥內出土木犀角13件、木象牙8件。1993 年,長沙市望城坡西漢漁陽墓出土木象牙、木犀角。馬王堆1號墓發掘者指出:“這些木犀角和木象牙,也都是明器。簡292提到‘木文犀角、象齒一笥’,應即指此。”可見,這些陶質或木質象牙、犀角都應該是明器。 

                                            為何兩漢墓葬(尤其是西漢墓葬)中會出現這么多的明器象牙、犀角呢?考古學者羅小華指出,自然是因為它們在古代是和金玉一樣珍貴的奢侈品。如《戰國策》記載:“王曰:‘黃金珠璣犀象出于楚,寡人無求于晉國。’”《淮南子》記載:“南方之美者,有梁山之犀象焉。” 

                                            羅小華指出,考古發掘出土的木質或陶質象牙、犀角,應該就是古人珍視象牙、犀角行為的遺留。而這些墓葬之所以用明器來替代實物,應該與當時的歷史背景有關。西漢初期,因多年戰亂導致社會經濟凋敝。漢文帝厲行節儉,就隨葬品的類別下了禁令,致使一些貴族不敢以實物隨葬,而以木、陶制成象牙、犀角來替代。這與以木俑或陶俑來代替活人殉葬的做法是完全一樣的。

                                            文、圖/廣州日報全媒體記者卜松竹 

                                          (來源:《廣州日報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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