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                                          文史評論
                                          宋代,濫觴期的紫砂壺
                                          陳傳席

                                            在有關紫砂壺的幾本早期著作文獻中,都說宜興紫砂壺起源于明代。而這一說法卻被考古發現和其他史料所改變。就目前考察可知,至遲在北宋已大量生產紫砂壺。

                                            尋找最早紫砂壺

                                            明代蔡司霑在《霽園叢話》中說:“余于白下獲一紫砂罐,有‘且吃茶,清隱’草書五字,知為孫高士遺物,每以泡茶,古雅絕倫。”“白下”即今之南京,距宜興不遠;“紫砂罐”即紫砂壺,古人常稱紫砂壺為紫砂罐、紫罌、紫甌等;孫高士即元代隱士孫道明,他博學好古,喜飲茶,其居處又叫“且吃茶處”(參閱《中國藏書家考略》,上海古籍出版社1987年版等)。如此看來,紫砂壺至遲也在元代就存在了。但元代的紫砂壺并不是最早的紫砂壺。

                                          ?《進茶圖》

                                          蘇東坡提梁壺(清)。

                                          《紫砂小史》  陳傳席 著  上海人民出版社 2019年5月 定價:99.00元

                                          宋代陶茶碾

                                          北宋越窯出品的青瓷缽。

                                            據文獻和考古雙重證明,紫砂壺在宋代就被大量生產且傳之甚遠。北宋詩人梅堯臣《宛陵集》卷十五中有《依韻和杜相公謝蔡居謨寄茶詩》,其中有云:

                                            小石冷泉留早味,紫泥新品泛春華。

                                            另外,卷三十五《答宣城張主簿遺雅山茶次其韻》中有云:

                                            雪貯雙砂罌,詩琢無玉瑕。

                                            梅堯臣(1002—1060),字圣俞,宣城(今安徽宣城)人。宣城古名宛陵,故人稱梅宛陵。他詩中說的“紫泥”“砂罌”即今之紫砂壺。

                                            梅堯臣的友人歐陽修有一首《和梅公儀嘗茶》,其中有云:

                                            喜共紫甌吟且酌,羨君瀟灑有余清。

                                            歐陽修晚年自號六一居士,也是好品茶的名士,詩中“紫甌”即紫砂壺。

                                            北宋畫家米芾《滿庭芳·紹圣甲戌暮春與周熟仁試賜茶,書此樂章》,末云:

                                            窗外爐煙自動,開瓶試一品香泉。輕濤起,香生玉塵,雪濺紫甌圓。

                                            宋人詩詞中還有一些紫砂壺的記錄。這里不再一一列舉,以上足以說明紫砂壺至遲在北宋已出現的事實。

                                            有故事的羊角山

                                            最能說明問題的還是考古發現。

                                            宜興市丁蜀鎮蠡墅村西北,有一座不太大的石土山,名叫羊角山,與盛產甲泥(紫砂和日用缸器等主要原料)的黃龍山余脈相接。羊角山東北端有座龍窯。1976年7月,宜興紅旗陶瓷廠于基建施工時,挖掘出一座古代紫砂窯址,其寬約10米,長約10米多,南北走向,在當時屬小型龍窯。窯側有兩排用磚砌成的垛子,其磚經測也是北宋中期的磚。從這座古龍窯遺址中發掘出大量早期紫砂壺殘片,其中有的還可以復原。經考古證明,很多紫砂壺屬宋中期之前燒造(參見《宜興羊角山古窯址調查簡報》,文物出版社1984年10月版)。

                                            羊角山古窯中發掘出的主要是紫砂壺遺物。南京博物院原副院長宋伯胤先生研究認為:

                                            第一,論其質地,原料是從蠡墅附近黃龍山采集的甲泥,胎質較細,是經過選擇和精煉的。這種紫泥含鐵(三氧化鐵)量達9.11%。

                                            第二,論其形狀,根據碎片復原主要是壺形器,還有少數缽子。壺大小不一,有帶把手的,也有提梁的。壺把還可以分為雙系把和單系把兩種。壺蓋亦有平蓋與罩蓋之分,平蓋似是早期的形狀。早期的壺身渾圓,晚期就出現了六角形的壺身。

                                            第三,論其制法,主要是手制,且經過打磨。羊角山紫砂藝匠最突出的工藝是對壺嘴與壺身、提梁與壺身粘接處理的技術,其采用了鉆孔塞泥法,到晚期則出現了用竹刀刮削的技術。

                                            第四,論其裝飾,壺身基本是素面無飾,顯得十分潔凈和素雅,只在壺嘴部分飾以獸頭一類的圓雕,也有用貼泥手法來裝飾器腹上部的。

                                            第五,論其燒成,紫泥因含三氧化二鐵量高,所以燒成溫度較低,約1200攝氏度左右。在廢窯基內沒有發現匣缽,可以斷定它是直接與平焰火接觸燒成,還原氣氛較重,器胎斷面呈紫黑色(見宋伯胤《飲茶、茶具與紫砂陶器》,載于香港茶具文物館《羅桂祥藏品》下冊)。

                                            根據實物考察,這五點總結是完全正確的。

                                            北宋的紫砂壺和明清直至當代的紫砂壺比較,一般顯得胎質較粗,制作也不若后代精細,而且都是較大型,很少有明清近代小巧玲瓏式,其實用性大于欣賞性。這些紫砂壺多用作煮茶或煮水,既不是幾案上的陳設用具,也不是用于泡茶,因為北宋人飲茶雖已漸近于清茶,但和后來的泡茶方式仍有別。

                                            還要補充說明,北宋紫砂壺的制造主要是繼承越窯系統的成型工藝,其中包括宜興的均山窯瓷器工藝。紫砂壺的很多形式在晉代的青瓷中皆可見到,有的類似商周的青銅器。當然,青瓷的制造也吸收了青銅器的形式。總之,其造型基本上來源于傳統器皿的形式,而不是憑空創造。

                                            揭秘“東坡提梁壺”

                                            “蘇東坡提梁壺”乃是清人摹古之作,現藏于臺北故宮博物院。明清迄今,這類壺不斷出現,都叫“蘇東坡提梁壺”。壺身有時有異,但凡稱蘇東坡提梁壺者,必備一個最主要的特點:上有彎彎的三叉梁。此壺壺身作球形,上有款字:“時在壬午孟冬之吉,立信陶廠出品。逸公氏摹古并鐫。”逸公是何人?尚不敢確定。清朝乾隆至道光年間有一位惠逸公,是當時壺道高手,尤善造大壺,泥色沉著奇特,壺形古樸可愛,刻鐫亦佳,皆和此壺相類。但此壺內蓋上卻有“郭記”一印,也許是監制者或預購壺者的印,因同時類似的壺中也有“郭記”印。如另一提梁壺乃“陳昇和制”,蓋內亦有“郭記”印,亦是仿古之作。此壺上注明是“逸公氏摹古”,可知非自創。其提梁、壺嘴、蓋紐皆作樹枝狀,用綠泥制作。

                                            這種造型傳為蘇東坡設計,絕非完全無因。蘇東坡曾四次到宜興。我們現在常能見到蘇東坡墨跡《楚頌帖》,很多書法家都臨寫過,其內容便是敘述蘇東坡到宜興的愉快心情,以及他在宜興“買一小園,種柑橘三百本”的事。蘇東坡對宜興太留戀了,以至于最后在宜興買田置宅。他喜愛宜興的山水花草,亦喜愛宜興的名茶,其詩《次韻完夫再贈之什,某已卜居毗鄰與完夫有廬里之約云》說:

                                            柳絮飛時筍籜斑,風流二老對開關。

                                            雪芽我為求陽羨,乳水君應餉惠山。

                                            竹簟水風眠晝永,玉堂制草落人間。

                                            應容緩急煩閭里,桑柘聊同十畝閑。

                                            (《蘇軾詩集》卷二十六,中華書局1982年版,1406頁)

                                            其中毗陵、陽羨都是宜興,雪芽是宜興茶中的名品。蘇東坡請人在宜興買田的信箋至今仍存于故宮博物院。蘇東坡于元豐七年(1084)被命遷汝州團練副使(按:在此之前,他因為烏臺詩案被捕入獄,出獄后,謫至黃州團練副使本州安置不得簽書公事),于是離開黃州北上,九月間到達宜興。元豐八年正月,東坡行至泗州,乃向神宗上《乞常州居住表》,要求回宜興休養。其中有云:“臣有薄田在常州宜興縣,粗給饘粥,欲望圣慈,許于常州居住。”宜興隸屬常州,“許于常州居住”即在宜興居住。神宗準許了他的請求。同年五月,蘇東坡到了揚州,住竹西寺,馬上就要到宜興家中,他寫了三首詩,名為《歸宜興留題竹西寺》。正因為他在宜興有田,才在詩中說“此去真為田舍翁”。其弟蘇轍為蘇東坡寫墓志時也說:“常州人為公買田。”蘇東坡在宜興品茶,曾有“松風竹爐,提壺相呼”之句,人們便想象,蘇東坡用的茶壺是提梁壺。再從考古發現來看,北宋也確實有提梁壺。于是,這種特殊的提梁壺便被稱為“東坡提梁壺”。

                                            總之,北宋中期,真正的紫砂壺已出現,且為文人所注目。

                                            南宋時期,因高宗南渡,建都杭州,北方很多窯業也隨之南遷。宜興地處南方,所遭戰亂較小,加之其地近京城,陶業發展很快。尤其在宋金和約之后,南方經濟大發展,而且,南宋的人口也增了一倍。從各種史料上考察,南宋人(尤其是京城)特好繪畫和各種小擺設,所以南宋時代,紫砂壺業特別發達,從考古挖掘看,古窯址也特多。當然,這些南宋窯址中有很多不只煉制紫砂壺,也燒制瓶罐之類的軍需品。今人從這些古代窯中挖掘出了很多碎片,可惜完整的紫砂壺仍然難見。

                                            元代,國運既短,加之前后戰亂,宜興的紫砂壺業不但沒有增多,反而減少,但壺業還沒有中斷。前面提到元人孫道明的“且吃茶”紫砂壺便是一例。元代文人畫家作畫時大多在畫上題詩題文并落名款鈐印,工藝品亦然。元代工藝家朱碧山便在自己所造的銀槎杯上刻詩刻名,并刻印章于其上。紫砂壺業受其影響,也刻字,是情理中事。但在明代前期紫砂壺上刻詩文的反而減少了。這情形也和繪畫一樣,元代文人喜于畫上大量題詩題文,但明代前期的浙派繪畫上題字卻減少了。

                                            元代飲茶完全進入清茶階段,茶不再煮,而是用來泡。所以孫道明的紫砂壺“每以泡茶,古雅絕倫”。當壺的功用改變時,其形式的改變也就順理成章了。

                                            (摘編自《紫砂小史》)

                                          (來源:《南方日報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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