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                                          棉花織就的全球史
                                          林頤

                                            哥倫布發現了新大陸,世界迅速變成一張“人類之網”。茶、咖啡、香料、白銀……財富聚散,帝國興衰,掀動一頁頁篇章。葡、西、英、法、荷等國在15世紀之后的沉浮,以及與之相聯系的美洲、亞洲國家的命運,毫無疑問地說確實與這些物品有關。

                                            “它們重塑了世界”,這個說法雖近于濫用,但確然構成事實。而在所有的這些物品之中,身為美國哈佛大學歷史教授的斯文·貝克特選擇了棉花。在貝克特看來,棉花具有兩個勞動力密集的生產階段,一個位于農田,另一個位于工廠。相比茶、咖啡之類的商品,棉花從農田到工廠的路程,要復雜得多。

                                          《棉 花 帝 國》,(美)斯文·貝克特著,民主與建設出版社2 0 19年4 月版,118 .00元。

                                            有關的征服故事已見于許多歷史記載,《棉花帝國》不是敘事角度的棉花貿易史、掠奪史,也不講述那些在征途上搏命的探險家幸運或不幸運的傳奇。作者說:“全球范圍內資本、人員、貨物和原料的流動,以及世界上遙遠地區之間聯系的形成,是資本主義大變革的真正核心,因此它們也是本書的中心主題。”可見,這部作品真正關心的并非棉花,而是資本主義的歷史。作者感興趣的是棉花織就全球史的方式,是隱藏其中的推動與相互推動的力量,是環環相扣的因果鏈條以及促成這一切的人類的活動。

                                            為什么是棉花,甚至可以說,為什么只有棉花才能形成這種聯系?

                                            在中學的歷史教科書上,我們已經知道了“珍妮紡織機”以及隨之而來的“搗毀機器運動”。然而語焉不詳的簡略描述未必就能清楚揭曉原因與意義。比如,你是否知道,許多民族都有悠久的棉花種植史,墨西哥、印度、中國……早在1000年前,亞洲、非洲、美洲的棉花織造業就是世界上最大的制造業:復雜的貿易網絡———大多數是 地 方 性 的 ,也 有 少 數 是 區 域 性的———將棉花種植業、紡紗工、織工和消費者聯系起來。但是,為什么是這個英格蘭本土并不出產棉花的國家,成為了最大的棉紡織制造商,并且成為工業革命的領頭羊呢?

                                            棉花對于歐洲最初是異國事物,它是伊斯蘭在公元1000年前后擴張的結果。棉產品制造業起初在意大利北部繁榮,14世紀時,德意志南部成為歐洲棉花產業中心。不過,相對于歐洲傳統的麻制和毛制衣服,棉制品尚未占據優勢。此外,意大利和德意志都沒有征服供應他們棉花原材料的人。直到16世紀接近尾聲,國家權力對于跨越大洋投入資本和力量的能力和意愿,以暴力的方式擠入棉花貿易的全球網絡,作者稱之為“戰爭資本主義”的力量,方才促成了經濟空間結構的大幅度轉變:多中心的世界逐漸變為單一中心的世界。

                                            而英國之所以超越了西班牙等國,更在于,當那些國家仍然停留在商業資本主義階段,英國最早發展出了工業資本主義。珍妮織布機提高了將棉花纖維紡織成線的速度,幫助人們把棉花變為一種傳統材料的可行替代物,比如替換了悶重又扎人的羊毛。不過,蒸汽機的發明要到1850年之后才有G N P(國民生產總值)上的意義。因為燃料轉換為動力的效率不夠理想,加上機械設計不良,產生的馬力不足,因而功能有限。這些問題在19世紀中葉得到了解決。技術-組織結構領域的革新是全方位的。比起其他歐洲國家,英國更注重經濟的后續長遠發展,也更注意基礎建設。英國在煤炭、鋼鐵、內河航運,以及大型商業壟斷組織如東印度公司的建立等方面,都做到了搶先一步或后來居上,非常完善。

                                            作者強調,將工人遷入工廠的能力成為棉花帝國勝利的關鍵。作者說,“可以肯定的是,工業革命主要是關于節省勞動力的技術。”棉花不僅改變生產方式,也改變了生產關系。英國的紡織業革命創造了巨大的棉花需求量。為了保障生產,大洋彼岸的奴隸數量也在增加。生產領域的轉型是伴隨工業化逐漸進行的。資本主義的崛起離不開對非自由勞動的殘酷剝削。大量種植專供出口的大眾消費品是殖民運動的結果,倡議者和投資者主要是歐洲的商人、貿易公司以及越來越多在殖民地定居的農民企業家。種植園經濟把奴隸以一種極端的方式轉化成了商品,他們被剝奪了人的屬性。

                                            經濟史學家彭慕蘭提出的“大分流”等歷史研究,圍繞棉花可以找到突破口。英國憑借地緣政治的支配地位幫助其紡織品商人壟斷了全球紡織品貿易,英國不僅運走了印度、美洲的棉花,并且讓這些地方成為了英國生產紡織制成品的工業基地和消費市場,加劇了殖民地的貧困化,在19世紀中下葉之后,憑借強勢的外交施壓與價廉物美的傾銷優勢,還逐漸摧毀了中國的棉紡織民族工業。

                                            大英帝國對世界局勢掌控能力的削弱,與美洲大陸脫離它的控制有關。新移民在18世紀末漂洋過海把紡織品的機械化生產技術帶到了美國。鐵路運輸、蒸汽動力和運河航道的擴展助推了美國早期的工業資本主義。作者說,美國迅速上升到市場支配地位的原因很簡單,美國比任何其他國家都更能靈活地提供進入原棉生產的三大關鍵要素:勞動力、土地和信貸。種植園經濟積累了美利堅的原始財富,也在積聚潛在的危害,南北戰爭就是清算日。這場戰爭標志著世界上第一次真正的全球原料危機,并催生了新的全球勞工、資本和世界權力網絡的出現。廢除舊制度、消滅非自由勞動的環境為雇傭勞動的興起鋪平了道路,強大的國家機構有充分的理由以立法、管理和監督等手段消除勞動領域的弊端、保障工人權利。工人運動的力量也引發了十九世紀和二十世紀世界范圍的解放運動,有力地促進了政治民主和社會民主。中亞是俄國棉紡織重鎮,日本成為東亞第一個走上工業化道路的國家,巴西嶄露頭角,中國進入復蘇……經線與緯線,在重新編織。

                                            棉花織造的資本主義全球史,繁復而耐人尋味,比起類似主題的通俗歷史著作,《棉花帝國》也顯得更深刻、更全面。正如緒言所說,棉花使得歐洲社會形成大規模的工業無產階級,導致龐大的新型企業的崛起,為歐洲制造商創造巨大的市場,引起奴隸制和雇傭制的爆炸性增長。棉花產業跨越了全球,以這些新方式將各大洲織在一起,它為理解現代世界、現代世界典型的極大的不平等及全球化漫長的歷史和資本主義不斷變化的政治經濟等問題提供了一把鑰匙。

                                          (來源:《南方都市報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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