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                                          ·清官良吏與始興的高速發展
                                          ·

                                          真臘就是現在柬埔寨

                                          周達觀成吳哥唯一記錄者

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                                          文史評論
                                          身體98%都是水 水母能留下化石嗎?
                                          梁 昆

                                            水母是海洋館里最受矚目的海洋生物之一。它們像水中一朵朵晶瑩的花朵,五顏六色,閃耀著奇異的光芒,游動起來搖曳多姿。然而,外表溫柔的它們,卻因擁有包含毒素的刺細胞而令人生畏。夏季的海灘,總有游客因下海游泳而被水母蜇傷。這種飄逸美麗卻又擁有近乎邪惡毒素的生物是如何演化形成的呢?在研究過程中,科學工作者還提出了另一個問題:全身98%都是水的水母真的能留下化石嗎?  

                                          八列帽天櫛水母化石 (資料圖片)
                                          『清江生物群』中發現的水母化石 新華社
                                          巨型水母至今仍生存在海洋里 圖/視覺中國
                                          寒武紀水下古生物復原圖 新華社
                                          澄江化石庫的中華先光海葵多見的腔腸動物化石 (資料圖片)

                                          澳大利亞南部埃迪卡拉山的疑似水母狀化石(資料圖片) 

                                            防身的致命武器:刺細胞毒素 

                                            水母因其具有特別的刺細胞,在分類學上和珊瑚一起隸屬于腔腸動物門。廣義的水母類包括:水螅綱(Hydrozoa)、缽水母綱(Scyphozoa)和立方水母綱(Cubozoa)。我們在海邊經常可見的海蜇屬于缽水母綱,是世界上最常見的一種水母。 

                                            水母的身體由內、外兩個胚層構成,屬于膠質浮游動物,絕大部分屬種在海洋里浮游生活,在一些淡水湖中也可見到少量蹤影。水母可以通過收縮改變內腔體積,利用噴水的方式進行運動。 

                                            水母的種類有很多,形態各異。其身體外形就像是一把透明傘,在傘狀體邊緣長有一些須狀的觸手,有些可長達30米,這些觸手其實是它們的消化器官,也是它們的捕食工具。正是在這些觸手上面布滿的刺細胞能夠射出毒液。 

                                            一般情況下,水母主要以小型浮游甲殼類、硅藻、纖毛蟲以及各種浮游幼體等為食,當這些獵物被刺蜇以后,會迅速麻痹而死,水母便會用觸手將獵物抓住,通過傘狀體下面胃層分泌的蛋白酶消化食物。 

                                            但這種刺細胞里含有刺胞毒素(含幾種多肽及組胺等),對人類也有很大危害。人被水母刺到,很快會感到炙痛并出現紅腫,一般情況下,只要涂抹消炎藥就能逐漸止疼消腫。但如果不幸遇到劇毒的水母,便會有生命危險。 

                                            例如,在澳大利亞海濱,有一種惡名昭彰的箱形水母,它們是世界上毒性最強的水母。它的毒液幾乎混合了各種有毒動物具有的全部類型的毒素,可以在幾分鐘之內致人死亡。因此,它在海洋中對人類的傷害力遠超體型龐大的鯊魚。 

                                            不過并非所有水母都擁有令人生畏的毒素,它們隨著環境的變化而演化出了不同的特征。在太平洋上的帕勞群島以及印度尼西亞達拉灣的卡卡班島,咸水湖里的斑點水母與太平洋黃金水母的毒刺在漫長的演變中退化,因此也被稱為無毒水母。 

                                            這可能是因為這些水母生活在島中相對封閉的水域環境中,靠海藻分泌的營養素為生,且缺乏天敵。經過近萬年與環境的協同演化,這些水母“遺失”了其祖先用以防身自衛的武器——身體內的毒素。 

                                            這些特征表明,水母的毒性可隨著環境的變化而產生變異,特別是強毒性的水母。例如箱形水母,其觸手布滿了儲存毒液的刺細胞,其中包含了世界上已知最毒的神經毒素,它的產生可能源于其生存環境,以及捕食活動的長期影響。 

                                            罕見的水母化石 

                                            那么,水母在漫長的地質歷史上,有沒有化石記錄呢?它們又是如何被記錄下來的呢? 

                                            水母身體的主要成分是水,體內含水量可達98%以上,并且通常缺少硬體組織,因此水母化石在地質歷史的記錄中極為罕見,僅在一些特異埋葬的化石庫中才能得以現身。 

                                            最早的化石紀錄,當屬以印模狀態出現在澳大利亞埃迪卡拉紀(距今約6億年前)的粗碎屑巖中的疑似水母化石。這些化石呈輻射對稱,體型龐大,且數量眾多,但因為跟現代的水母差別較大,所以其是否為水母化石仍然存在疑問。 

                                            研究人員基于云南澄江動物群的Yunnanoascus haikouensis的重新研究,認為它是目前已知最早的浮游類型的水母化石,距今約5.2億年——可以說,水母的出現應該比恐龍還要早了很多。 

                                            根據化石保存的特征,該水母歸屬為缽水母綱,且具備16對用于捕食的觸手。 

                                            此外,在北美猶他州中寒武統(距今約5億年前)發現的一些水母化石呈壓扁的狀態,保存在頁巖中,其中包括水螅綱、立方水母綱和缽水母綱的代表。 

                                            這些水母化石不僅僅保存了完整的水母傘狀外形及觸手,而且還保存了更多的細節特征。 

                                            這些研究成果表明,在緊隨埃迪卡拉紀之后的早寒武世,也就是寒武紀生命大爆發時期,確切的水母動物已經出現,其各個綱一級分類單元的代表在中寒武世就已經活躍于海洋中了。 

                                            從寒武紀生命大爆發到現在,水母已經歷了6.5億年的演化歷史,并在漫長的地質年代中不斷進化,產生了更多物種。現今我們在水族館中看到的光彩奪目、各色各異的水母便是它們演化的絕佳證明。它們充分反映了大自然的神奇之處以及生命演化的奧妙。(“科學大院”ID:kexuedayuan 授權轉載) 

                                            制圖/王軍 

                                          (來源:《廣州日報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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