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                                          ·文物數字化 足不出戶“隔空賞物”
                                          ·給觀眾尊嚴 給文物尊嚴 給“故宮貓”尊嚴
                                          ·做一粒“益生菌”
                                          ·文博經濟 路在何方?
                                          ·古建筑保護與“重建”,求索進行時
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                                          文史建言
                                          錢鍾書愛讀的一本詞典
                                          陳焱

                                            十八世紀英國大文豪、辭典學家塞繆爾·約翰遜(Samuel Johnson)在其編寫的《英語大辭典》序言中說,編辭典者是“不幸的噍類”“無害的苦工”(陸谷孫譯文)。那么讀字典辭典呢?估計大多數人都將此視為畏途,實乃索然無味之舉。不過,還真有人喜歡讀這類書,從瀏覽或精讀字詞字義中獲得良多趣味,讀書浩博的錢鍾書先生就是其中之一。

                                          英語學家巴闕立治。

                                          《英國俗語大詞典》第八版封面。

                                            錢先生親友憶述他讀字典的文字時有所見。根據他的桃塢中學同窗葉謙吉回憶,中學時代的錢鍾書已有讀字典的習慣,“每當讀到新的字詞,他就在字典的空白處做注釋,最后字典寫得密密麻麻的”。之后在1935年,錢先生赴英留學時在船上讀字典(參看湯晏《一代才子錢鍾書》第210頁注釋中引述楊絳的信);1939年秋,錢鍾書和大學同學鄒文海從上海赴湖南藍田的國立師范學院任教,鄒見到錢在途中“怡然自得,手不釋卷”,其中就有英文字典。楊絳在《記錢鍾書與〈圍城〉》中亦提到,“重得拿不動的大字典、辭典、百科全書等,他不僅挨著字母逐條細讀,見了新版本,還不嫌其煩地把新條目增補在舊書上。”在《我們仨》中,楊絳還回憶抗戰期間錢鍾書返上海,“在來德坊度假沒時間翻書,也無書可翻,只好讀讀字典”,此外楊在《回憶我的父親》亦寫道,她父親(錢的岳父)愛讀音韻學的韻書,“忽發現鍾書讀字典,大樂”。

                                            那么錢鍾書常讀的有哪些字典辭典呢?翻檢《〈管錐編〉〈談藝錄〉索引》,以及《錢鍾書手稿集·容安館札記》(以下簡稱《容安館札記》),可知他讀過多種外文字典及辭典,包括英文、法文及德文等,著名的就有英文版《牛津諺語詞典》(The Oxford Dictionary of English Proverbs)《牛津引語詞典》(The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations)《德文比喻用法歷史辭典》(A Historical Dictionary of German Figurative Usage)等。

                                            以前曾讀過有人回憶稱錢先生經常查閱《牛津英語大辭典》(Oxford English Dictionary),并在上面做筆記,愚笨如我者,對此說頗不以為然。如此寫錢先生,是既不知其人,亦不知此辭典。蓋此大辭典卷帙浩繁,皇皇近二十大厚冊,如何“隨手在書邊的空白上注幾個字,寫一個問號或感嘆號,像中國舊書上的眉批,外國書里的Marginalia.”后來我讀到《坐在人生的邊上——楊絳先生百歲答問》一文,楊先生在文中提到“(錢先生)無書可讀時,字典也啃,我家一部碩大的韋伯斯特氏(Webster‘s)大辭典,被他逐字精讀細啃不止一遍,空白處都填滿他密密麻麻寫下的字:版本對照考證、批評比較等等。”文中還配有這部“大辭典”的圖片,正是厚達2662頁的《韋氏第三版新國際英語大辭典》(Webster’s Third New International Dictionary),據說這部有錢氏手澤的大書,已獻給了國家博物館。看來前賢用功之勤,用力之恒真是我們這些疏懶的后生小子無法想象的。

                                            不過,錢先生讀辭典雖多,有一本英文詞典應是他的愛讀書、常讀書,因為他不止多次引用,甚至還翻譯了書中的一些例句,寫入自己的著作中。這本詞典就是Eric Partridge主編的《英國俗語大詞典》(A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English)。

                                            錢鍾書較早提及此書是在1945年的《小說識小》一文,“(《西游記》)孫行者欲邀豬八戒相隨打妖,云:‘兄弟,你雖無甚本事,好道也是個人。俗云放屁添風,你也可壯我些膽氣。’俗諺云云,大是奇語。按巴闕立治(Eric Partridge)名著《英國俗語大詞典》(A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English)字母P部,采有‘撒尿海中以添水’一語(”Every little helps“,as the old lady said when she pissed in the sea),亦指助力而言,意正相當。”錢先生肯定激賞“Every little helps”的詼詭,故不憚在《管錐編·全晉文卷一四三》中再次引用如下,不過譯文更為精到了——“正肖英俚語:‘老嫗小遺于大海中,自語曰:’不無小補!‘”甚至到了晚年刪訂《槐聚詩存》而作序時,他仍然不忘再次使用這個四字譯文,“余笑謂:他年必有搜集棄馀,矜詡創獲,且鑿空索隱,發為弘文,則拙集于若輩冷淡生活,亦不無小補云爾。”翻檢《〈管錐編〉〈談藝錄〉索引》,錢氏在這兩部書中引用巴闕立治的著述有四次,并不算多。但檢索《容安館札記》,僅在前700則,已有近30次的引用,其中就包括《英國俗語大詞典》,可見這本詞典應是錢先生的多年“良伴”了。

                                            那么巴闕立治此書有何特別之處,能夠讓錢先生青眼有加,屢加引用?

                                            巴闕立治(Eric Honeywood Partridge,1894–1979)出生于新西蘭并讀完大學,后來去牛津讀了碩士。一戰期間加入澳洲軍隊,后來還參加了二戰,或許正是這兩段軍旅生涯讓他對俚語、俗語、詈語萌發了興趣,想來軍中這類four-letter words(直譯是“四字詞”,因為英文的很多不雅詞匯都是四個字母組成,類似“三字經”的國罵)應該是不絕于耳的。自1937年起,他著手編纂這部《英國俗語大詞典》。據說從1923年開始,他就成為大英博物館圖書館的常客,經常去某個固定編號的桌子,竟然持續了五十年,與該館的另一位常客馬克思大可一比了。巴氏一生著述宏富,著作約有四十種。不過,巴氏最看重的大概是這部廣收各種不文詞匯及俏皮話的詞典,從他臨終前六周還在修訂此書即可知。他另外還編有A Dictionary of Catch Phrases與A Dictionary of Cliches,亦是錢先生經常翻閱引用的辭典,而《錢鍾書手稿集·外文筆記》第12冊亦有巴氏兩本書《Usage and Abusage》與《The World of Words》的摘錄,可見錢先生對他的著作是相當熟悉的。

                                            截至1984年,這部《英國俗語大詞典》共出了八個版本,1961年的第五版作過大幅增訂。錢鍾書經常引用的是第四版,此版已是一部近千頁的大書。這部巨作第八版在1984年發行,篇幅有2800多頁之巨,因巴闕立治已在1979年辭世,所以未參與此版的修訂。

                                            巴氏在這部大詞典第一版的序言中說,這是“多年仔細觀察口語的成果,旨在成為不朽巨著《牛津英語大詞典》的卑微伴侶”,“收集了語言學方面非傳統的英語”,其中俚語及黑話占50%,俗語占35%,其余(語病及用詞不當、名人妙語、綽號、粗俗語)占15%.“《牛津英語詞典》對粗俗語或取或棄”,對于這些俗語,巴氏的取舍有何原則呢?他說:“我則是兼收并取。遇到不雅的詞匯,我的慣常做法是處理時要簡短、嚴格、消毒,同時要清晰恰當。在某些例子中,我迫使自己克服本能的極度反感。對于上述情況,敬請讀者寬諒。”

                                            熟悉錢鍾書筆記的讀者都知道,錢先生讀書、做筆記是不避葷腥的,翻看整理的洋洋大觀的手稿集即可知。他在《容安館札記》中摘錄《英國俗語大詞典》的文字,即大致可分為穢語、俏皮話兩大類。

                                            這些俏皮話中免不了像無厘頭電影中時不時冒出的“屎尿屁”,下面聊引數則并試譯。先說“尿”,在《容安館札記》第二百八十七則中,錢先生用英文寫道:When I come across in Gide‘s Journal such passages as“Lisant Wuthering Heights.... Lisantàhaute voix la dernière entrevue de Catherine et de Heathcliff et ne retenant plus mes sanglots”(14 juin 1914,p. 419),I am seized with a desire to be ribald & recall the sentence in The Unfortunate Traveller about“weeping all one’s urine upward”or the catchphrase recorded in Partridge‘s Dictionary of Slang,4th ed. P. 635:“Let her cry,she’ll piss the less!”“此段試譯如下:”偶讀紀德日志,中有‘閱《呼嘯山莊》,高聲讀至Catherine與Heathcliff最后會面,淚下難禁。’句(1914年6月14日,第419頁),不由得生起粗俗之念,憶起《不幸之旅人》的一句話,“尿液上升,化為淚水”,以及巴闕立治《英國俗語大詞典》(第四版,第635頁)中的“Let her cry,she‘ll piss the less!”(試譯:讓她哭吧,這樣就少拉點尿!)。“

                                            至于“屁”,他在《容安館札記》第三百二十八則(閱雜書聊識數事)的補注中寫道——《西游記》七十五回行者道:“俗語云:放屁添風。”按Edward FitzGerald:“Puseyism & Catholicism were ascendant,& I would not help even by a f—t to fill their sails.”(A.M. Terhune,Life of Edward FitzGerald,p. 158)。參觀E. Partridge,Dict. of Slang,p. [6]:“Every little helps”as the old woman said when she pissed in the sea.錢鍾書說的這位Edward FitzGerald是十九世紀英國文人,引文試譯如下:“牛津運動主義及天主教教義氣焰日熾,讓他們揚帆航行去吧,我是不會放屁添風的。”錢先生不忘又在句末重提了“不無小補”。

                                            “屎”見于《容安館札記》第五百二十四則,“Fall into a heap of shit & come out with a gold watch(a new suit on):catchphrase applied to a lucky person.”(試譯:掉進大糞堆,出來戴金表(出來披新裝):描述撞大運者的妙語。)錢先生在此用英語補寫道:I suspect some unconscious symbolism lurking in this phrase—witness expressions like“Muck for luck!”“(試譯:我猜此句隱含了無意識的象征手法——親見有人說過Muck for luck(踩了屎))。

                                            除了這部詞典之外,錢鍾書還讀過巴氏其他研究字詞的書,都是有贊有彈。例如,他提到巴氏的Dictionary of Clichés收之,說道:“而不知已并見此書,蓋Partridge務稗販,未能求之經籍,深造自得。”可見錢先生讀詞典,一如他讀其他書,并不因為是“典”就奉之為金科玉律。

                                          (來源:《南方都市報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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