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                                          ·給觀眾尊嚴 給文物尊嚴 給“故宮貓”尊嚴
                                          ·做一粒“益生菌”
                                          ·文博經濟 路在何方?
                                          ·古建筑保護與“重建”,求索進行時
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                                          文史建言
                                          給觀眾尊嚴 給文物尊嚴 給“故宮貓”尊嚴
                                          故宮“守門人”單霽翔退休后在廣州首次開講——
                                             “我們要把壯美的紫禁城完美地交給下一個600年,我們沒有食言”“保護文物就是讓文物‘活’起來,而不是鎖在庫房里” “故宮里的貓也有尊嚴,有了它們故宮里才沒有一只老鼠,它們同樣是保衛故宮的力量”……受廣州市文化廣電旅游局邀請,被稱作故宮最大“流量擔當”的故宮學院院長、中國文物學會會長單霽翔昨天下午到廣州開講。2.5小時的演講中,他金句連連,讓現場掌聲與笑聲齊飛,幾乎幾分鐘就會出現一個“笑點”。 
                                          全場笑聲掌聲不斷,觀眾都被單霽翔院長的“段子”逗樂了。
                                           
                                           

                                          故宮(資料圖) 新華社發

                                            文物“活”起來: 

                                            把家底文物都“秀”出來 

                                            單霽翔回憶,2015年,故宮舉辦的“石渠寶笈特展”讓他十分感慨,那時,觀眾排了100多米的長隊,展覽開到了后半夜,工作人員向連夜參觀的游客免費發放了水和方便面,最后一批觀眾直到凌晨4點多才走出故宮博物院。這讓他有個強烈的感受,要多辦好展覽! 

                                            于是,單霽翔打開了一座座城樓,推開了一扇扇宮門。他感嘆,當文物得不到保護時,是蓬頭垢面沒有尊嚴的。要讓文物有尊嚴,就要好好保護。他下定決心,2020年前要讓故宮收藏的186萬件文物都光彩照人。他說,這是同事們一直努力的方向。 

                                            故宮博物院開放參觀94年來,一共經歷了7任院長。單霽翔形容,這是一個高風險的崗位,可以說是“一失就萬無”。“過去,我們以為展出的文物越少,開放區域越小就越安全,其實不然,我們發現還會出事。我們要讓大家知道,每個人都有保護文物的義務,大家共同保護,文物才能安全。” 

                                            正是有了這樣的認識,單霽翔選擇開放了故宮越來越多的區域。他舉例,在延禧宮,當年乾隆要建設水族館,卻不想成為北京最老的“爛尾樓”。于是,單霽翔決心將這里建成外國文物館。如今,每位外賓到場都會送來一些外國文物。去年,故宮還開始開放庫房,有個156米長的大庫房南庫房,修好建成后成為故宮博物院家具館。這里的家具不是紫檀就是黃花梨,以前一放幾十年得不到養護和參觀,看著很委屈,現在拿出來展示光彩照人。此外,角樓有了現代化建筑展覽,100多年沒演戲的暢音閣能看戲了,最年輕的寶蘊樓也在100周年紀念日開放。 

                                            當然,就算開放再多的區域、舉辦再多的展覽,到故宮博物院參觀的觀眾,是全球很小的一部分。所以故宮還靠互聯網技術,讓全世界通過網站了解故宮文化。“我們開始舉辦網上展覽,180多萬件文物全部公布了,人們足不出戶就能看到文物信息,看文物展覽。” 

                                            不僅如此,文創產品也成為故宮“新活力”的代表。為什么每次故宮能夠出一件產品就火一件?單霽翔坦言,開發文創產品,關鍵是要研究人們不斷變化的生活,要有實用性、趣味,此外,還要找到傳統中鮮為人知的歷史故事,將兩者連接起來。正是這樣,才有了成為國禮的宮廷紫砂五福五代堂,以及故宮神駿水果叉、宮門包、衣服夾子等。 

                                            “管理革命”進行時: 

                                            觀眾體驗最重要 

                                            一直以來,單霽翔喜歡把自己稱作是故宮的“守門人”,而不是“掌門人”。在故宮博物院任院長期間,單霽翔做了很多創新和改革,在他的任期內,故宮博物院取得了驕人的成績。2016年,一部《我在故宮修文物》的紀錄片火了,也讓古老的故宮變得讓人更加親近。自此,故宮口紅、故宮美食、故宮夜游、故宮貓等,不斷刷新大家對博物館固有的沉悶印象,而他也被公眾和媒體親切地稱為“網紅院長”。 

                                            如今,在故宮學院院長的新崗位上,單霽翔探討了文物保護和博物館建設。他說,7年多前,剛剛上任故宮博物院院長時,走在故宮,他最大的感觸就是,雖然地方大,但很多地方不開放;雖然藏品多,但缺少文物藏品;雖然觀眾多,但旅游體驗并不好,觀眾沒有真正感受到這座世界級博物館應有的魅力。 

                                            他坦言,作為一座有著很多“世界之最”的博物館,故宮博物院里70%的地方都豎著“觀眾止步”的牌子,99%的文物睡在庫房,這導致很多人以為故宮的文物主要是建筑群。“‘世界之最’真的最重要嗎?”他捫心自問,而他的選擇是,讓觀眾有獲得感比“世界之最”更重要。當他看到人們沿著故宮的中軸線,跟著導游的小旗匆匆忙忙往前走,沒有一個人能享受一個有尊嚴的旅程。從此,以后“要給觀眾尊嚴”成了他永遠掛在嘴邊的一句話。 

                                            此外,他們研發出最適合于故宮的觀眾休息座椅,按男女洗手間比例1:2.6的科學比例整改洗手間,禁止機動車駛入,制作500多塊標識牌,實名網絡購票制,將故宮每日的人流量控制在8萬,引進冷光源不發熱LED燈……他盡自己最大努力,給游客提供了最舒適的游覽方式。 

                                            為故宮“降火”: 

                                            上限每天8萬人 實現“旺季不擠, 淡季不淡” 

                                            從2002年到2012年,故宮博物院接待的游客連年上升,自2009年破千萬后,2012年達到1534萬人次。此時,正值單霽翔剛上任不久,他必須判斷,是要讓觀眾繼續增長下去,還是放緩增長速度,實現觀眾數量和保護建筑的平衡。單霽翔選擇了后者。 

                                            “我們一天接待4萬觀眾很輕松,8萬勉強還可以,18萬人的時候接待接近飽和,午門廣場外就全是人了,神武門內基本就看不到地面了。”于是,故宮將每天接待的觀眾上限設置為8萬名。“限流的意義是保護大家的權益,保護文物的安全。”單霽翔說,隨后他們引導旅游團在淡季來故宮,還設立各種免費日,并提升淡季的展覽質量。從2016年開始,故宮觀眾數量開始平衡,尤其是今年年初淡季舉行的“紫禁城過大年”活動,終于實現了“旺季不擠,淡季不淡”的新平衡。此外,故宮開始試行全網購票。2016年的預約購票占41%,2017年占70%以上。2017年10月,故宮關閉所有的現場售票窗口。 

                                            為故宮修文物: 

                                            吸引年輕人為故宮修文物 

                                            從故宮大高玄殿修繕、永壽宮修繕、長春宮修繕到乾隆花園修繕,談及文物修繕,單霽翔坦言當中有許許多多繁雜卻細致的修復工作。單霽翔說,他的前任院長鄭欣淼上任第一件事是啟動故宮整體維修保護工程,計劃用18年的時間把故宮的古建筑進行維修保護。第一個修的是武英殿,修繕后成了陶瓷館;西部最大的宮殿慈寧宮,修繕后成了如今的雕塑館。1963年6月一把大火燒掉的建福宮花園,復建后成了如今的故宮學院等。 

                                            此外,故宮還建立了“故宮文物醫院”,配備了200名文物醫生。他以修復唐卡為例介紹,以前不敢修,現在用現代技術清楚地看到了唐卡細微的紋路,包括上面縫著的小珍珠是如何串聯的。他坦言,就如同3年前的紀錄片《我在故宮修文物》中所展現的,雖然這些工作并不被大眾所看到,但故宮的工匠師傅們卻是兢兢業業,問心無愧的,他們要為未來保護今天。 

                                            讓單霽翔欣慰的是,他們的付出也受到了認可。《我在故宮修文物》紀錄片打動了很多年輕人,最近一次故宮博物院考試,1.7萬人報名參加,年輕人都踴躍報名,希望到故宮修文物。而因為紀錄片火了的鐘表師傅王津,前段時間也在美國獲得了一項電影大獎。“為什么王師傅什么都沒演,就得到了多少明星想要的獎項?說明大家對工匠精神還是認可的,這才是真正的英雄。” 

                                            單霽翔說,全國三分之一以上的珍貴文物藏品收藏在故宮博物院,故宮珍品文物數量呈現“倒金字塔型”,可以說,故宮幾乎每一件文物都是珍貴文物。長期以來,大家是不知道故宮有多少件文物。但7年前,他到故宮來的第一天,就知道故宮有多少件文物,因為我的前任院長鄭欣淼花了7年時間,把故宮文物一件一件編目,2014年-2016年,他們又進行了文物再清理,到去年,我們收藏的文物共1862690件(套),其中珍貴文物占了93.2%。 

                                            為故宮裝上“保護網”: 

                                            禁煙從自己人“開刀” 

                                            紫禁城是明代永樂皇帝在1420年建成的,到2020年剛好600年。“我們希望把壯美的紫禁城交給下一個600年”,這是單霽翔對自己的諾言,也是他對故宮許下的諾言。 

                                            火,向來是故宮保護中最怕的。要加強防火力量,除了組建大興消防隊、消防機器人、開展消防演習等,單霽翔決定全面禁煙。2013年,單霽翔要求“故宮禁煙,從員工做起”,他說,故宮1500名員工大約有400名“煙民”,從前禁煙總是不成功。單霽翔選擇在“平安故宮”動員大會上跟員工們喊話:“我們自己能不能也不抽煙了?”當時會上沒有人反駁。于是,單霽翔當即向全國媒體“公告”,說“故宮員工有志氣,從此不再抽煙”。就這樣,故宮把“抽煙室”搬到了宮門之外。“后來,還有員工親戚發感謝信給我,說感謝院長這個政策讓家人成功戒煙了。”單霽翔幽默的語言再次引起全場笑聲。 

                                            經過3年“艱苦卓絕”的整治,單霽翔可謂連一根雜草也不放過。他說,雜草長在建筑屋頂上,扎根會影響建筑結構,帶來安全隱患,整治工作完成后,故宮1200棟建筑沒有一根雜草。“干干凈凈的,文物才能不受傷害。” 

                                            除此之外,單霽翔說,故宮有200多只野貓,每天很多人送貓糧。他感嘆,事實上,故宮的貓工作很辛苦,晚上員工下班后,就輪到“貓員工”上崗了,如今,偌大的故宮沒有一只老鼠,這些“貓員工”功不可沒,它們也是保衛故宮的力量。

                                            文/廣州日報全媒體記者申卉、張姝泓  圖/廣州日報全媒體記者駱昌威、蘇韻樺 

                                          (來源:《廣州日報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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