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                                          ·500年古祠“修舊如故”
                                          ·民間珍藏 大眾共賞
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                                          文史建言
                                          讓“參與式更新”激活老城街巷
                                          ——專訪北京市城市規劃設計研究院高級工程師趙幸

                                            “讓城市留下記憶,讓人們記住鄉愁”,去年10月,習近平總書記視察廣東時強調,城市規劃和建設要高度重視歷史文化保護,不急功近利,不大拆大建。當前,寓“文改造”于“微改造”,以繡花功夫提升城鄉環境,已成為廣州搶抓大機遇、煥發新活力的抓手之一。在這方面,同樣是老城市的北京,也面臨類似的問題。今年以來,北京市擬立法推行“責任規劃師”制度,為破解超大城市更新難題提供了新的思路。為此,本報記者專訪了北京市城市規劃設計研究院高級工程師趙幸。聽她詳解,近年來北京在城市有機更新和精細化管理上形成的一些好經驗、好做法。 

                                          院落公共空間提升改造前 

                                          院落公共空間提升改造后 

                                            趙幸簡介 

                                            北京市城市規劃設計研究院高級工程師,北京歷史文化名城保護學術委員會秘書長,史家胡同風貌保護協會秘書長,長期在北京開展歷史街區保護和名城保護規劃及公眾參與工作。 

                                            責任規劃師推動社區形成溝通機制 

                                            廣州日報:責任規劃師制度頗有新意,在北京是怎么逐漸成形的? 

                                            趙幸:從2007年開始,北京市開始嘗試在城市規劃保護中擴大公眾參與。最初是以老城區為試點,做一些參與式規劃的探索。那時候,城市規劃建設中普遍不太注重公眾參與,無論是居民,還是在地單位,都缺少參與的接口。之所以選擇老城區作為試點,也是因為老城更新涉及的問題較復雜,利益相關方較多。 

                                            到2008年,北京市提出了責任規劃師的概念,但實際上責任規劃師和他所負責的街道還沒有建立特別緊密的聯系和合作對接的接口。2014年起,北京市城市規劃設計研究院在老城區的一些街區中進行了比較深度的責任規劃師探索。從2014到2016年間,是以非正式合作的方式開展在地責任規劃師工作。 

                                            這期間,主要進行了社區公共空間改造、老舊小區公共環境提升等方面工作,并采取全過程參與式的方法。在方案制定之初,就和居民一塊討論、接受反饋,最終確定實施方案。 

                                            在此基礎上,我們和東城區朝陽門街道推動成立了一個社會組織,就是今天的史家胡同風貌保護協會。這個社會組織成立的初衷是把居民、產權單位等利益相關方拉到一個平臺上,建立一套溝通機制。這樣的話,大家想干什么、需要什么,就可以提前溝通、充分討論。 

                                            但平臺成立后,我們發現僅有一個需求平臺遠遠不夠,進而試點了一些改造項目。比如,在空間提升方面,對一些大雜院的院落公共空間進行改造,像有些閑置的小違建,以前可能用作煤棚子,現在已經不燒煤了,清理拆除后,便能留出公共空間做成花園,由居民來種植和維護;在公共設施方面,對傳統菜市場進行了改造,我們會跟產權單位、居民和菜販們一起設計方案。由設計師提供指導,他們提出意見,到最后的美化環節,他們也可以參與進來,一起動手布置。這些改造都屬于參與式微更新,目的是希望通過全過程的參與討論,推動建立社區公共事務的商討機制。 

                                            從2017年開始,街道方面覺得這種方式取了良好效果,所以雙方簽訂了戰略合作協議。此時,北京還沒有開始正式推廣責任規劃師制度。所以,就先在街道層面明確合作關系。由于和街道一塊合作運營了史家胡同博物館,責任規劃師的在地工作,就有了一處實體空間,可以長期收集居民信息和意見,匯集各種合作資源。同時我們會利用這個空間策劃臨展,這也是推動街區微更新的一個手段。因為有些街區更新項目,不是馬上就能申請到經費,進入實施階段。但一開始,可以通過臨展的方式收集居民意見,用1:1實景放線裝置進行示意性實施,讓大家提前看一看,公共空間如果變成這樣會帶來哪些效果。如果各方認可的話,就能比較順利地進入實施階段。 

                                            北京的大雜院里住了很多戶居民,相互之間卻沒有溝通機制,院落里很多雜物或私搭亂建,都處在既不騰也不拆的狀態。因此,責任規劃師的作用主要有三個方面:一是設計方案;二是組織討論,讓居民意識到目前的狀態不可持續;三是改善社會治理機制,比如和社區一起帶著居民制定社區公約、收集胡同口述史。此外,每年北京國際設計周期間,我們會以臨展的方式,向居民和全社會展示目前探索實踐的一些成果,吸引新的合作資源。 

                                            廣州日報:責任規劃師目前主要負責哪些工作? 

                                            趙幸:從北京東城區、西城區的做法來看,責任規劃師多數是兼職的,相當于街道對接一家機構,如果有什么需要,這家機構會派專業人士幫忙解決問題。但海淀區試點的方式,是由單位派駐一名專職規劃師到所在街道。因為責任規劃師制度從去年才正式推行,很多做法仍在探索當中。 

                                            技術指導方面,責任規劃師承擔的職責,類似于技術顧問的角色。比如有些設計單位會給街道提供一些方案,那么責任規劃師會幫助街道和社區進行技術把關,看一看方案符不符合整體規劃要求,然后持續跟蹤實施過程。至于權限范圍,現在還沒有特別明確。有的街道的做法是,所有方案必須經責任規劃師簽字,才能實施,但這個權限是基于街道對你的信任,不是說責任規劃師理應擁有方案審批權。 

                                            公眾參與方面,當有些規劃項目需要征求居民意見時,責任規劃師會協助組織居民討論,提供一個場合讓感興趣的居民、單位等利益相關方發表意見。另外,會協助街道探索街區更新或社會治理的創新機制,給他們提供專業咨詢。比如孵化一些創新項目、擴大項目實施中的社會參與等。當然每個街道的情況都不一樣,有的街道希望我們具體策劃一個公共空間應該干什么事、如何來運營,有的只需要負責前期咨詢,讓責任規劃師給出主意。 

                                            規劃師權責如何界定是亟待解決的難題 

                                            廣州日報:進一步推廣責任規劃師制度,還需解決哪些問題? 

                                            趙幸:最大的問題在于怎么清楚地界定權、責、利。如果機構和街道雙方有長期的合作基礎,實際工作中,權責劃分就有較明確范圍,雙方配合就比較默契。如果前期溝通不夠充分,就可能產生“街道不清楚責任規劃師該干什么,規劃師自己也不知道什么事該找他、什么事不該找他”的問題。這樣的話,對接效果就會不太理想。 

                                            在溝通方面,不管是責任規劃師與居民的溝通,還是規劃師與街道方面的溝通,都非常重要。當然,跟街道、部門、合作方等機構的溝通過程會更加復雜一些。因為你面對的可能是不同領域、不同類型、不同權責的機構。而且責任規劃師團隊還沒有一套成熟架構,對整體規劃的理解程度、對溝通方法和技巧的掌握程度也參差不齊。 

                                            在考核評價方面,現在沒有明確標準,不過一般在某個項目或某個階段結束時,會有一個雙向評價機制,包括社區居民、街道等服務對象會給責任規劃師的工作進行打分。 

                                            總之,責任規劃師制度還處在起步階段,很多具體細節有待進一步探索。相信隨著經驗積累,這項制度會逐漸形成比較成熟的流程和規范。 

                                            搭好平臺為城市更新匯集合力 

                                            廣州日報:在進一步擴大公共參與方面,責任規劃師制度還有哪些好的經驗? 

                                            趙幸:目前,很多非專業的社會團體對于文化保護工作,其實非常感興趣。大家都希望有一個平臺、一些經費支持,或一處場地空間,一定的媒體曝光,來推動這件事情。 

                                            所以,我們也協助西城區政府合作建立了一個匯集保護力量的合作平臺——“四名匯智計劃”。其中,“四名”代表“名城、名人、名業、名景”,是西城區特有的保護體系,“匯智”則代表匯集各方力量。我們每年向社會征集一定的經費,來支持各種民間團隊開展一些軟性文化活動,例如展覽、講座、探訪、游戲、出書、微電影等。在條件允許的情況下,還可以幫忙介紹合作資源、解決場地需要或提供宣傳機會。 

                                            這么做,一方面是讓大家覺得有一個組織,能鼓勵交流、相互合作,帶動越來越多的社會力量參與進來。另一方面,由于有政府的支持和認可,再加上有成果推出,做起來也會很有成就感。 

                                            像以院落為單位的小微更新,這幾年也產生了一些比較好的案例。比如北京西城區會把一些文物或歷史建筑改造成社會運營的閱讀空間。其中,有一個正陽書局項目,就是西城區政府跟一家專門做老北京文化的企業合作,請這家企業代為運營一處國家級文保院。在租金全免的條件下,企業要負責把這處空間好好利用起來,要求每年舉辦數場文化活動,并給社區提供相關文化服務。 

                                            還有一些空間是政府騰退出來后,以免租、或在免租基礎上提供購買服務費用的條件引進運營主體,用比較創新的方式提供社區需要的文化或生活服務。比如,北京朝陽門街道的社區文化生活館,主打“藝術進社區”的概念,在那里,會舉辦比較國際化、高水平的藝術活動,但同時又跟社區生活緊密對接,居民可以來玩,外邊的人也可以過來體驗。再比如,西城區的白塔會客廳項目,也是政府免租,并提供運營費用。平時,運營方會在這里組織老街坊聚會,居民在聚會過程中產生各種各樣的想法,進而自發結成縫補、廚藝、木工等興趣團體。 

                                            微改造改善生活,更要傳承文化 

                                            廣州日報:如何在微改造中留下鄉愁記憶? 

                                            趙幸:了解每處院落的情況和歷史背景,是責任規劃師在地工作的組成部分。有定點場所之后,這項工作也更加常態化了。整個長期收集信息的過程,都在不斷補充和深化我們對這個街區的理解。 

                                            此外,還可以通過社區營造,號召社區居民一起為社區改善做點事情。比如自發收集口述史,或把他們覺得有價值的本土文化和傳統生活方式,用某種形式延續和發展下去。因為改造過程中,不可能所有人都遷走,對留下的老居民,還是希望能增強他們的認同感,強化共同記憶,把祖祖輩輩留下的文化內容更好地展示出來,傳承下去。 

                                            事實上,留下鄉愁和記憶,也包括騰退過程中的就地改造措施。因為大部分人是不遷走的,那怎么去改善生活條件?除了公共服務、基礎設施的提升,政府也在探索一些新方法,比如把騰出來的公共空間重新設計,做成公共廚房、儲藏室和衛生間等。如果自己家里有改善需要,政府可以提供對接方式,比方說集約式改造單元,但這需要自己承擔一定費用。 

                                            城市更新不一定是件利益最大化的事情,更多要考慮的是公共設施、公共環境、社區氛圍、鄰里關系等內容。有些新小區的開發商可能會有這方面意識,因為社區環境的提升,包括社群氛圍的和諧,都有利于提高整個物業的升值空間。但在城市更新方面,我認為還是以政府投入為主,僅靠商業項目還不能自給自足。 

                                            廣州日報:恢復歷史風貌要把握哪些原則? 

                                            趙幸:最重要的是把握分類原則,比方說文物建筑,基本上要按照原貌保護,包括里里外外的裝飾、用料和工藝,甚至對它進行的現代化改造也必須是可逆的、可拆卸的。像我們在故宮里,也能看到很現代化的展廳,但仔細觀察的話,它們不會直接鉚在柱子或者墻上,都是以不對原物造成破壞的方式進行的。 

                                            對于歷史建筑,雖然它們算不上文物,但是有一定的歷史價值。那么外觀必須保持傳統風貌,一些傳統構件要保留下來,但內部實際上是可以進行現代化改造的。 

                                            再有就是一些傳統風貌建筑,它們沒有太強的歷史價值,但仍然具有傳統風貌。這種的話,可能要求會再松一些,只要形式是傳統的,里頭哪怕用的是鋼結構或新材料,都可以接受。前提是形式與傳統風貌協調統一。 

                                            甚至有些地方的院落空間,里邊只有幾幢是傳統建筑,其他都是私搭亂建。那么在清理違建后,只要把那幾幢傳統建筑按原貌恢復,其他部分都可以進行重置。但這件事,需要大家一起商量、討論。 

                                            我覺得,很多公共空間,只要能和周圍環境保持協調,有一些新的東西未嘗不可。因為歷史文化保護,既不是一刀切的全部保護,也不是完全不加限制地隨意改造。這項工作的出發點,是要把整個區域空間提升起來,讓人們住得舒心,讓文化得以延續。 

                                            采訪手記 

                                            責任規劃師: 

                                            打通微改造“最后一公里” 

                                            他山之石,可以攻玉。雖然相隔兩千多公里,但在我看來,北京和廣州在很多地方都有著相似之處。二者同為國家中心城市,在全國政治、經濟、文化格局中扮演著重要角色;二者也同為歷史文化名城,歲月在它們身上都留下了深厚積淀。進入新時代的兩座城市,都來到了轉型發展的緊要關口。 

                                            沿著這樣的思路,尋找兩座城市的交集。我想推動城市有機更新和精細化管理,無疑是一份屬于二者的共同答卷。其中,微觀層面的街區保護,正是北京和廣州得以交流互鑒的交點。北京的史家胡同和廣州的永慶坊,作為兩座城市在街區微改造方面的代表案例,有各自獨特的經驗,也有相互重疊的地方。在這一視角交錯的碰撞下,也因此擦出了治理智慧的火花。概因老城市新活力,正是在一條條街區中激活,寫就為城市發展的出彩篇章。 

                                            當然,借鑒不是毫無選擇的移植,在相似的地方,我們還得看到兩座城市在歷史源流、社會現狀和發展理念的諸多不同。每一種借鑒,都是一次抽絲剝繭的剖析,從中要找到適合自身的理念或方式,補充在我們對街區的理解之中。之所以北京的話題讓我感興趣,一方面同個人經歷相關,在這里我度過了求學生涯的七年時光,另一方面,也因為責任規劃師制度給人以耳目一新的觀感。 

                                            去年以來,北京市東城區與12家一流設計院和知名大學合作,為全部17個街道配置了街區責任規劃師團隊。責任規劃師要做些什么?其中,最具借鑒意義的一點,就是擴大公眾參與。從一間院落到一處街區,公共空間的提升,不是說一紙方案就可以解決所有問題。責任規劃師的作用,就是要在居民、街道、產權單位等利益相關方之間搭建起溝通橋梁。這需要掌握一定的溝通技巧,更需要腳踏實地地了解實情、走家串戶。 

                                            一城事,人人事。參與式微改造,就是讓人人參與到城市更新這盤大棋中來,用共建共治共享的社會合力,推動老城、老街煥發生機活力。如此,民生改善與城市管理同向共進,老城市的文化味與生活味便能相得益彰。目前,北京的責任規劃師制度已進入立法程序,將在各個區街全面推廣。我認為,從經驗學習和借鑒中,走出一條具有廣州特色的城市更新之路,對于廣州實現老城市新活力而言,大有裨益。 

                                            文/記者 毛梓銘  圖片均由受訪者提供

                                          (來源:《廣州日報》) 

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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