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                                          ·文物“回家”
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                                          廣角聚焦
                                          前所未有的考古項目是怎樣煉成的?
                                          ——來自廣東海上絲綢之路博物館“南海I號”考古現場的蹲點報告

                                            南海來的風溫潤潮濕,坐落在陽江海陵島十里銀灘的廣東海上絲綢之路博物館,外觀如一座外太空飛船,引人遐想。

                                            沉睡了800多年的南宋古船,在2007年用全世界獨創的整體打撈方案出水后,一直安臥于博物館“水晶宮”內。自2013年全面考古發掘工作展開以來,這艘古船的傳奇身世一點點被揭開。這歸功于一個強大的守護團隊——由國家水下考古中心、廣東省文物考古研究所、中國文化遺產研究院、廣東海上絲綢之路博物館等方面專家組成的考古及文保團隊。

                                          如今,“南海I號”出水文物數量已超過16萬件,所有船艙的文物清理工作已近尾聲。

                                          工作人員在清理船艙內的鐵器凝結物。

                                          “南海Ⅰ號”發掘出來的金飾。

                                          “南海Ⅰ號”發掘出來的精美瓷器。

                                            12年過去了,南宋古船是否安然無恙?為揭開古船身上的諸多謎團,考古、文保團隊又經歷了哪些艱辛、攻克了哪些難題?南方日報記者日前再次探營“南海I號”考古現場,記錄下了他們與古船廝守、攻克難題的分秒時刻。

                                            首創整體打撈載入史冊

                                            “水晶宮”巨大的玻璃幕墻,被反照成湛藍色,融于海天一色間。

                                            “水晶宮”內,800年南宋古船“南海I號”在考古隊員的發掘中,緩緩蘇醒。棕褐色木質船身從淤泥中裸露出來,800年古船真身躍然眼底。

                                            上午9時,“南海I號”考古隊領隊崔勇穿過欄桿,小心翼翼地來到考古作業平臺上,周密地檢查著考古隊員的工作,在現場記錄、調度著。從2013年全面考古發掘至今的6年多時間,考古隊員們在這里奮戰了上千個日夜。

                                            如今,出水文物數量已超過16萬件,精美和豐富程度超乎預期,所有船艙的文物清理工作已近尾聲。古船隔板內,800年前船上遠洋生活的蛛絲馬跡依稀殘存,傳遞無聲的震撼。

                                            “直到今天我們才可以說,當初我們采用的‘整體打撈’方案是成功的。”崔勇指著古船底部裸露出來的完好舷板說,船底完整沒有殘缺,這印證了12年前的打撈方案是完美無缺的。

                                            2007年,“南海I號”采用了全世界獨一無二的“整體打撈”方案——連貨帶船打撈出水,這套“整體打撈”方案在全世界史無前例,以至于“水下考古之父”喬治·巴斯在觀看了模擬實驗后也稱贊其“精妙”。方案整體耗資過億,用一個重達500多噸的鋼沉箱,將古船從海底兜住,再用華天龍號海上起重船將其打撈出水,這被當時國際水下考古界認為是難以完成的方案。

                                            直至2005年整體打撈方案確定前,考古界一直爭論不休,國際考古界傳來不少質疑聲,許多專家仍然堅持“傳統打撈”的想法。

                                            傳統水下考古的模式,考古隊員們需要不斷潛至水深24米“南海I號”所處的位置,在能見度極低的環境下將文物一件件提取上岸,大量歷史信息極易流失。

                                            “只有‘整體打撈’方案才能最大限度提取古船的歷史信息。”崔勇回憶說,這是專家們堅持選擇這一最冒險方案的原因。但是,其實施難度之大,仍讓許多專家憂心忡忡。“當時有專家給予了一個形象的比喻,將載滿易碎瓷器的800年古船完好打撈出水,就好比用鐵籃子從水底撈出生雞蛋那樣難,簡直是天方夜譚。”

                                            整體打撈過程中,難度最大的是要在20多米深的海底淤泥中為沉箱穿底梁。在能見度幾乎為零的海底,從古船底部穿底梁,好比是“海底穿針”。稍有不慎就會傷及800年古船。

                                            果然,在穿第一根底梁時就遇到了阻力,由于海底淤泥極其堅硬,僅穿過一半便發生變形。為此,現場負責人和工人幾天幾夜沒有睡著。最終專家們在鋼梁上安裝了高壓噴口,利用高壓水泵對淤泥進行即時沖刷,花費13天時間才將第一根梁安裝到位。

                                            之后,35根底托梁在一個多月時間內順利穿過沉箱底部,最終由號稱“亞洲第一吊”的“華天龍”號起重機吊船將載滿貨物的古船連同凝結物、沉箱共5500多噸重,整體打撈出水。

                                            正是因為廣東文博考古界“敢為天下先”的勇氣和打撈團隊的科學嚴謹,最終造就了這一在外界看來“不可能完成”的項目,被載入世界水下考古史冊。

                                            數字化發掘可逆向復原

                                            崔勇黝黑的臉龐,帶著海風的氣息。

                                            作為中國第一批正式的水下考古隊員,崔勇最初學水下考古就是因為“南海I號”。為了跟進“南海I號”,國家文物局和國家博物館舉辦了第一期水下考古培訓班,接收了來自全國各地的11位學員,崔勇就是其中一員。2001年,他第一個潛入深海,在海底摸到了“南海I號”。

                                            “與純粹水下考古模式不同,‘南海I號’的整體打撈方案決定了它的發掘方式也必將是前所未有。”崔勇說,“南海I號”被打撈上岸后,在“水晶宮”里又“沉睡”了6年。在這艘滄桑的古船面前,再有經驗的考古專家也都成了“新手”。如何完好無損地發掘文物、保護古船,專家們都拿不定主意。

                                            “‘南海I號’考古發掘每天都會遇到新問題,要走前人未走之路。”崔勇說,古船進駐“水晶宮”后,專家原本設計了三種考古發掘方案——“全水”“全干”“半干”,顧名思義,選擇古船在海水中浸泡不同的程度和體積。

                                            “最終我們做出了一個可逆的方案。”經過三次全國專家論證會,反復推敲,三個方案最終磨合成為一個——在類似陸地考古的保水模式下開展文物發掘,讓船體在露出水面1米高的狀態下進行發掘,即使出現問題還可以重新灌入海水回復到先前的狀態。

                                            這一方案,最大限度地結合了陸地考古和水下考古的優點,便于最大程度地提取古船的歷史信息。

                                            考古平臺上,一架巨型天車罩住800年古船,天車中央搭載了一臺三維激光掃描儀,對著船艙內進行“無死角”拍攝。好似一個巨大的“掃描儀”,考古隊員每發掘一層,天車就來回“掃描”一次。這些詳盡的數據信息最終匯總成一個龐大的數據庫,讓“南海I號”的所有考古工作可“逆向復原”,彌補了考古可能帶來的“缺憾”。

                                            為了最大限度地提取古代信息,考古隊創新性地引入“浮選法”,把遍布船艙的淤泥通通進行浸泡、篩選,不錯過任何蛛絲馬跡。不僅篩出了直徑僅有0.3-0.5毫米的小金珠,更發現了豬、羊、狗、雞、橄欖、荔枝等動植物殘骸。

                                            這些細小且瑣碎的文物遺存,如同線索一般勾連著古人的生活畫卷。考古隊借鑒“聚落考古學”的研究方法來綜合破解關于這艘古船的眾多謎題,比如船艙中發現的一片蓋在瓷器上的平整木板意味著當時的船員、商人或許就是睡在貨物之上,“蝸居”在幾平米的小隔間內。

                                            在崔勇看來,考古工作者面對的最大悖論是“最大限度地提取,也意味著較大程度的破壞”。“我們希望,今天怎樣從古船上取出文物,未來還要能原樣裝回去。”崔勇說,“南海I號”從最初發現到全面考古發掘,中間相隔了幾乎20年,但等來了更先進的考古理念。“我們發掘的最終目的不是文物,而是最大限度地還原古代生活。”

                                            抽絲剝繭還原歷史信息

                                            在“南海I號”考古隊,活躍著一群“80后”考古隊員,他們畢業于國內各大高校的考古專業,幾年前來到陽江扎根。

                                            一個狹小的船艙內,考古隊員葉道陽用手鏟撥開厚厚的海泥,一摞摞宋代瓷器呈現在他面前。他仔細跟數字圖像比對、記錄,之后再小心翼翼展開發掘工作。

                                            “放棄大城市的工作機會,來到陽江,就是為了‘南海I號’。”2009年,葉道陽從中山大學考古系畢業只身來到陽江,守護“南海I號”已有十年。在別人看起來充滿神秘的工作,對于葉道陽來說,更多的時候是一種孤獨堅守。

                                            日復一日的發掘工作極大地考驗考古隊員的耐心。初期沒有空調,“水晶宮”內夏天溫度很高,隊員們的工作服幾乎被汗水浸潤,沒有人請假和離場,依然全力投入工作。

                                            “窗外的海景很美,但我們都沒有時間和心情去欣賞這片海。”葉道陽說,每個來到“南海I號”工作的人,都帶著一種“使命感”。

                                            出水的16萬件文物,或許是考古隊員們最大的回饋。這些文物中除了大量瓷器、金器,還有精美的漆木器,甚至還發現了古人在船上生活使用的木梳子、銅鏡、咸鴨蛋。“每發現一件文物的欣喜之余,隨之而來的保護問題,又讓我們殫精竭慮。”

                                            在考古作業平臺上方的辦公室內,隊員們工作臺上堆滿了一疊疊厚厚的原始發掘資料,以及用密密麻麻字跡寫滿的“南海I號”考古工作日記。

                                            對于這些年輕的考古隊員來說,“南海I號”就像一本百科全書,等待他們去破解。“穿越”到800年前,抽絲剝繭還原歷史信息,對于這些年輕的考古隊員而言,充滿了吸引力。

                                            在他們眼里,這艘800年古船如同一個“時光膠囊”,濃縮了幾十甚至上百個宋代人遠洋貿易生活的現場,為解碼南宋人的生活提供了一把鑰匙、一個切面。

                                            考古隊員陳士松本科就讀于歷史系,研究生專攻商周考古方向。“‘南海I號’里能夠提取的歷史信息是超乎想象。”由于歷史學出身,陳士松對于出水文物總有多一層歷史文化思考,他將古船出水的文物與歷史文獻進行“互證”,破解許多有趣的歷史信息。

                                            2014—2015年,“南海I號”曾出水了5件木秤桿,這引發了陳士松的極大興趣,他查閱《隋書·律歷志·衡權》《天工開物》等古代文獻,梳理現有的研究成果,寫成研究文章,考究古代權衡器的發展演變。

                                            但擺在“南海I號”考古隊員面前最大的挑戰是,如何保住800年古船船體,這是一個世界性難題。經過800年的海水浸泡,船體木質結構已變形、收縮,極為脆弱。

                                            如今古船仍處于巨大鋼沉箱的保護之下,廣州打撈局的工程師為古船定制加固裝置,用數十根鋼支架為年邁的古船打上“石膏”。每天,中國文化遺產研究院和廣東海上絲綢之路博物館文護專業人員會對古船進行不少于兩次的防腐液體噴灑,好像為古船“敷面膜”。

                                            “未來,還要經過一個相當漫長和復雜的置換和保護過程,古船船身才有可能不垮塌變形,完整地出現在‘水晶宮’內。”崔勇說,這可能還要等上數十年,需要幾代考古人的堅守和奉獻。

                                            蹲點手記

                                            探索廣東文旅融合新路徑

                                            從全世界唯一的“整體打撈”方案,到陸地考古與水下考古相結合的唯一考古發掘方案,再到破解出水文物的保護難題……“南海I號”從1987年發現到如今,一直牽動著全世界水下考古界的關注。它依靠跨學科、多領域的頂尖團隊合力,將許多“不可能”變為“可能”。

                                            回顧“南海I號”的考古過程,已然超越了單一考古項目的復雜度。它不僅聚集了國內最頂尖的水下考古和文物保護團隊,還調動了國內頂尖的水下打撈作業、工程力學、測繪專業團隊,堪稱“跨界”合力開創的典范。

                                            “南海I號”與它一同出水的十余萬件文物,見證了中國水下考古的從無到有,也見證了廣東水下考古事業的騰飛。正是借助“南海I號”與“南澳I號”等水下考古項目的成功,廣東一直穩坐國內水下考古的頭把交椅。

                                            “南海I號”所在的海陵島閘坡上有一個國家文物局設立的水下考古培訓基地,兩年培養1期學員。崔勇欣慰地說,如今他已經成功培養了共6期,培養了超過100名水下考古隊員。“他們現在分布在全國各大水下考古項目,都是主力隊員。”

                                            “‘南海I號’折射出的正是廣東的敢為人先。”回看與“南海I號”相識的漫長時間里,技術、資本、概念的儲備花費了大量的時間成本和精力。

                                            “但是現在看來一切都是值得的。”崔勇慶幸,一路走來,經過理想和現實的不斷調整,所有看似“天馬行空”的開創性想法最終都在廣東落地開花。

                                            伴隨著“南海I號”入駐陽江海陵島的海上絲綢之路博物館,它引發的未來想象空間也在不斷變大。

                                            10年前,海陵島還是個交通不便、尚未完全開發的海島,沿海沙灘人煙稀少。10年來,海陵島試驗區開始重點改造海濱路、旅游大道等島上的主要道路,打造了一夜埕旅游文化街,旅游地產項目遍地開花,島上面貌煥然一新。

                                            據統計,僅海陵島2018年的旅游人數就從2009年的222.5萬猛增至913萬,旅游收入從10.8億元增長至60.5億元。

                                            “南海I號”是全國兩處采用“公眾考古”參觀模式的博物館之一,考古工作全程處于觀眾參觀之下。除此之外,陶瓷課堂,文物修復演示,AR、VR現場互動……廣東海上絲綢之路博物館推出的研學之旅項目也同樣火爆。今年6月,“南海I號”還將迎來南昌外國語學校的數百名學生,為他們提供一節別有風味的海絲文化課。

                                            如今,伴隨著800年古船的重生,“南海I號”正不斷爆發出文旅融合的巨大能量。未來,隨著800年南宋古船故事的精彩演繹,與“南海I號”相關IP的大型主題文藝展演、海上絲綢之路旅游線路的策劃出爐,將全面帶動陽江海陵島周邊的經濟發展,成為探索廣東文旅融合新路徑的樣本。

                                            采寫:南方日報記者 孫國英 黃堃媛 李培 張俊 楊世華 通訊員 陳瑞鋒 龍志坤 發自陽江 攝影:南方日報記者 李細華 羅斌豪 實習生 李佳璟

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