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                                          廣角聚焦
                                          華農師生“洞穴找蟲”發現新物種!
                                          “雙河盲步甲”是什么?
                                          張璐瑤 方瑋 謝韓

                                            257.4公里有多長?這是從廣州南站到韶關東站的距離,也是亞洲第一、世界第五的長洞——貴州遵義雙河洞的長度。從2009年開始,華南農業大學洞穴生物多樣性研究團隊的師生們就深入雙河洞研究洞內生物。十來年,他們相繼在洞內發現洞穴步甲、馬陸、跳蟲、幽簾蟲、擬蝎、鉤蝦和蛙類等多種真洞穴生物的代表類群。  

                                          雙河盲步甲

                                            

                                          華農師生洞穴中探秘 

                                            

                                          田明義教授在研究昆蟲 

                                           

                                            2019年3月24日,雙河洞國際科考項目新聞發布會于貴州遵義市綏陽舉行。華農洞穴生物多樣性研究團隊領頭人、農學院教授田明義應邀出席該發布會,展示了他的團隊在雙河洞研究取得的最新成就。截至目前,該團隊發現真洞穴動物40多種。 

                                            新物種:發現“特化”后的“雙河盲步甲” 

                                            亞洲第一長洞是什么樣子的?中國目前已知最長的喀斯特洞穴——雙河洞,就在貴州遵義綏陽縣里的一個叫“溫泉”的小鎮范圍內形成。由于水長年累月的沖刷,聚沙成塔,滴水穿石,洞中有天然形成的洞穴大廳,有因碳酸鹽不斷溶解又沉淀析出而形成的鐘乳石。 

                                            在這座神奇的洞穴中,也留下了華農師生的腳印。 

                                            華農洞穴生物多樣性研究團隊由以田明義為首的教師和研究生組成,致力于研究洞穴生物物種多樣性,鑒別新物種,是國內相關領域內最活躍的團隊之一,現有4名老師和6位研究生。 

                                            自2009年起,該團隊深入雙河洞研究洞內生物,至今已有十余年,相繼在洞中發現真洞穴生物的代表類群有洞穴步甲、馬陸、跳蟲、幽簾蟲、擬蝎、鉤蝦和蛙類等當地的特有物種,共發現真洞穴動物40多種。這些物種十分稀有,只能在洞穴中生存,有著極高的科學研究和保護價值。 

                                            “雙河盲步甲”這個新物種(也是一個新屬的模式種)的發現,讓田明義尤其興奮。它是一種身體很“特化”(物種為了適應黑暗的洞穴環境在形態上發生一定的變化)的盲步甲,它的眼睛完全退化,不用防紫外線,所以沒有色素,體壁變薄,身體變得更加修長,感覺器官發揮作用,感應的地方面積變大,對氣流、溫濕度、危險信息等更加敏感。由于在雙河洞內發現,田明義將其命名為“雙河盲步甲”。 

                                            在雙河洞中,他們還發現了細頸盲步甲、隱毛帶雙馬陸、長角跳蟲、斑灶馬、幽簾蟲、龍馬陸等多種洞穴生物。他和團隊發現的田氏鱗跳,就是一個以田明義教授姓氏命名的跳蟲。 

                                            洞穴探秘:黑暗中找蟲,有時還要“飛檐走壁” 

                                            洞穴探秘、尋蟲好玩嗎?危險嗎?田明義告訴記者,洞穴中往往是暗無天日的,不過對于他們來說,洞穴卻意味著無窮的新奇和奧秘。 

                                            穿上紅色探洞服,頭戴安全帽,后背的背包上裝滿了各種工作設備,胸前掛著采蟲的小瓶子,深入洞穴中,目之所及的地方都是漆黑,頭燈和手電筒是唯一光源,一點細微的聲音都會被無限放大。他們一邊行走一邊仔細搜尋,連一條石縫都不放過。 

                                            “我們一定是帶著目標去洞里找蟲子的。”田明義介紹,在進入團隊之前,團隊都會先做足功課,充分了解洞穴環境以及洞穴中可能存在昆蟲種類。 

                                            一看到有流水或比較潮濕的地方,大家的第一反應就是:“這里可能有蟲子!”一旦有發現,所有人都會興奮地圍過去,觀察、拍照、討論。即便是一些藏在縫隙里的蟲子,他們也會想方設法用水“澆”出來。 

                                            黑暗幽深的洞穴意味著許多未知的風險,他們踏出的每一步都要小心翼翼,為了維持平衡,雙手必須騰出來,以防在滑倒時撐住自己。有時他們還要攀爬陡峭的石壁,如果遇到縱向的深洞,就必須在洞口找一個穩定的支點打鉚固定,然后用堅固的繩子綁在腰間,抓著繩索緩緩下降進入洞中。“累呀,但是我們很快樂。”田明義笑道。 

                                            研究洞穴: 調查超過720個洞穴,發現全球十大新物種 

                                            “探索洞穴生物只是第一步。我們首先要弄清楚有什么物種在洞里生活,它們生存的狀況怎么樣,才能對它們做出一個瀕危等級的評估,然后再制定保護的對策。”田明義說,“洞穴生態系統十分脆弱,對洞穴生物多樣性的保護在我國還沒有得到足夠的重視。” 

                                            從2000年開始研究至今,團隊已經走遍全國16個省(區、市),調查超過720個洞穴,追蹤“洞穴精靈”。他們從零開始,在一次次的“洞穴探秘”中逐漸成長。 

                                            目前,在洞穴生物研究領域里,華農對洞穴步甲和馬陸這兩個類群的研究已在國內外處于領先的位置。團隊已發現的洞穴生物有馬陸40多種,盲步甲80多種。其中,首次發現的麗穴盲步甲被評為2018年度全球十大新物種。他們還主編出版了學術專著1部,發表SCI學術論文55篇。 

                                            一個新物種的發現并不容易,田明義和團隊不僅要找洞、進洞找蟲、捕捉昆蟲,還要研究鑒定昆蟲,有時要歷時幾年甚至十幾年。 

                                            田明義與洞穴結緣已經15年,一類眼睛缺失的步甲勾起了他“鉆洞”的最初興趣。他的辦公室里有一排約2米高的柜子,里面層層疊疊放了許多個標本盒,保存著各式各樣的步甲蟲標本,包括100多種的模式標本。“這可都是寶貝呀!”他笑著說。 

                                            “對昆蟲感興趣,能吃苦,耐得住寂寞,才能守得住初心。”常年翻山、“鉆洞”、找蟲,頭發已經花白的田明義依然樂此不疲,帶著研究生走出野外、深入洞穴、采標本,進行物種鑒定。他告訴記者,退休后他還要繼續鉆洞找蟲,“一直要干到70歲!” 

                                          (來源:《羊城晚報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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