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                                          中國第一次飛機軍用 竟是針對越秀山上的炮樓
                                          中國近代航空絕大部分第一,都是廣東人創造的

                                            辛亥革命爆發后,馮如被任命為廣東革命政府飛機長,成為中國第一個飛機長;1912年3月,他制造出中國第一架飛機——馮如二號;中國近代空軍脫胎于北伐時期,歷次征討軍閥多賴廣東空軍協同作戰;抗戰爆發前,廣東省的空軍實力居于全國各省之冠。 

                                            20世紀30年代初的《飛報》《飛行月刊》《空軍》《航空雜志》等期刊,刊發的十余篇文章,記述了廣東空軍發展史,創建廣東航空學校始末,1929年廣東空軍討伐張、桂部隊經過。從某種意義上說,廣東早期空軍發展史即為中國近代航空發展史的縮影。 

                                          1912年,馮如創建的廣東飛機制造廠制造出的飛機
                                          1928年,中國航空史的第一次長途飛行
                                          1934年,為廣東空軍制造飛機的工廠
                                          1912年,馮如創建的廣東飛機制造廠里,工人們正在制造飛機

                                          馮如創建的廣東飛機制造廠制造出的飛機發動機 

                                            在美購機10架,竟被政府買通奸細燒毀6架 

                                            1933年第192期《飛報》刊登的《廣東空軍進展史》一文,詳細記述了廣東空軍的緣起、戰績與興衰。民國成立后,孫中山先生積極提倡航空救國,并在南方領導革命,籌建空軍。1914年,在愛國華僑的資助下,廣東旅美華僑楊仙逸協助國民黨駐美洲總支部部長林森訓練國民黨空軍人才,倡辦“中國國民黨空軍學校”。 

                                            1917年,首期20名學生畢業后,在美國組成“中國國民黨飛機隊”,后與楊仙逸回到廣州。時值孫中山在廣州成立革命政府,遂在廣州東郊瀕臨珠江之大沙頭開辟水陸飛機場,楊仙逸任隊長,此為廣東空軍之肇始。 

                                            1915年后,督粵軍閥龍濟光受袁世凱之命,殘殺革命黨人,引起海外華僑公憤。他們捐資購買飛機,由廣東籍飛行家譚根帶回,討伐龍濟光。龍濟光雖在觀音山(今越秀山)建筑炮樓、布置鐵絲網,但終因懾于飛機之威而被滇桂護國軍和廣東民軍擊敗。此為中國第一次飛機軍用。 

                                            1917年,孫中山在廣東建立大元帥府,擬組織飛機隊,時已委張惠長、陳慶云謀劃,但因廣東都督陸榮廷從中掣肘,未能如期進行。孫中山遂派陳炯明、許崇智入閩組織軍隊回粵討桂,同時在漳州成立飛機隊,由楊仙逸、李光輝、葉少毅主持。不久,又派張惠長、阿慶云、吳東華等在廣東秘密成立飛機隊,在澳門借地訓練。1918年,大元帥府下設航空處,李一諤任處長,張惠長為副處長,此為廣東空軍最初組織。 

                                            1920年11月,孫中山整頓軍政,建立航空局,任命朱卓文為局長。局設兩隊:第一隊隊長張惠長、隊副陳慶云,隊員楊永安等,擁有大小飛機5架;第二隊隊長陳應權,隊副林安,隊員陳友勝、胡榮煥、余伯炯、黃家達、陳神蔭等,擁有大小飛機4架。第一隊奉命至廣西桂林,第二隊奉命至廣西北海,時以廣州大沙頭為機場。至此,廣東空軍初具規模。 

                                            1922年2月北伐開始,航空局改組后合并為一隊,張惠長任隊長,陳慶云任副隊長。飛機隊協同陸軍北伐,由韶關至南雄、南安、信豐、南康、贛州、萬安、吉安。在戰斗中,飛機隊發揮威力,屢建戰功。同年6月,陳炯明在廣州發動叛變,北伐軍回師廣東,在韶關為叛軍所敗,退入福建。飛機隊因汽油告罄無從補給,只得將飛機全部燒毀。此為廣東空軍的第一次重大損失。 

                                            1923年,陳炯明退出廣州。同年3月,楊仙逸與林偉成、黃光銳、黃秉衡、楊官宇等先后抵穗。孫中山任命楊仙逸為航空局長兼飛機制造廠長,黃光銳任第一飛機隊長、林偉成為第二飛機隊長,在美購機10架,在滯留渥倫時被北京政府買通奸細燒毀6架,其余4架經澳門運抵廣州。 

                                            不久,陳卓林、關榮等也各帶飛機回粵。8月下旬,飛機隊在博羅東江協同陸軍攻打惠州。9月20日,楊仙逸在梅湖白沙堆前線改裝水雷,失慎爆炸,楊仙逸與長洲要塞司令蘇從山、魚雷局長謝鐵良、機師吳顧枝等百余人罹難。國民政府遂定每年9月20日為“航空紀念日”。此為廣東空軍的第二次重大損失。 

                                            經此重挫,廣東空軍陷入低谷,又兼周寶衡、黃光銳、楊官宇、陳友仁等意見不合,航空局長、飛機隊長屢任屢辭。直至1929年在討伐張桂之役中大獲全勝,廣東空軍才得以重振雄威。 

                                            討伐張、桂之役,廣東空軍轟死轟傷敵軍千余人 

                                            1929年秋,桂系軍閥李宗仁、白崇禧聯合張發奎進犯廣東。中央政府遂派海陸空軍赴粵討伐。1930年第1卷 第7期《航空雜志》刊發的《在粵空軍討伐張桂逆軍之經過》,記錄了廣東空軍在此役中神勇無敵。 

                                            參加此役的廣東空軍共有22架飛機,分為三隊:第一隊為中央派粵各機編成,計有轟炸、偵察機8架;第二三隊為航空處第一、第二隊各機編成,各有飛機7架。各隊直接聽命于張惠長指揮。 

                                            張、桂軍隊傾巢來犯,意在一鼓作氣拿下廣州。粵軍則因兵力單薄,中央陸軍赴粵尚需時日,防御工事未能完善,利在緩戰。而廣東空軍的作用正是讓速戰變為緩戰,空軍不斷地轟炸張、桂軍,張、桂軍因此白晝不敢行進,有時正在行進突被空軍轟炸,不得不四散逃避或藏入叢林。因此,行軍不能如期到達目的地,為粵軍爭取了時間,得以充分準備。此為此役空軍的最大功績。 

                                            此次與張、桂軍的作戰計劃,是擬以海陸軍取守勢,空軍取攻勢。同年11月20日張、桂軍進抵廣東后,廣東空軍分為兩路飛入敵軍上空偵察,遇其密集隊伍則投彈轟炸。從11月20日至12月15日桂軍全部退卻,共投彈2000余枚。飛機轟炸共炸死炸傷張、桂軍千余人,致使他們因懼怕飛機而士氣大減。 

                                            往昔作戰,既不知敵軍意欲進攻的方向,又不知其主力所在,更不了解其行軍路線。而此次作戰,有了偵察機,張、桂部隊行進方向、人數多少、先頭部隊到達地、主力在何方等,皆被空軍偵悉無遺,粵軍遂得以大膽轉移、隨時部署、精準打擊。 

                                            在戰斗中,飛行員表現神勇,不畏犧牲。蕭祥蛟、石宗漢二人駕包特斯機在軍田一帶轟炸敵軍,因飛行過低,張、桂軍在山上架設機槍還擊,將飛機前座擋風罩打破。蕭的面部被玻璃劃破,血流滿面,歸來后檢查上翼亦中兩槍,飛機未得墜毀,實屬萬幸。 

                                            當記者采訪張、桂軍統帥時問:“你們畏飛機否?”答:“畏之甚。”問:“炸傷多否?”答:“傷亡不到千人,惟有一顆炸彈正中司令辦公處,聯絡參謀、馬弁十余人當場身亡。”問:“高級長官有炸死傷否?”答:“李漢魂在前線指揮時,一彈落于身旁,然未爆炸,受驚不小。” 

                                            廣東軍事飛機學校在廣州大沙頭成立 

                                            1912年,陸榮廷入粵任廣東都督,委派譚根組織航空學校,兼飛機隊長,廣東航空學校由此而生。只可惜,譚根唯利是圖,不思發展,竟與馬濟等朋比為奸,以致學校開辦數年,竟無一名學生畢業,早期廣東航空教育遲遲未得發展,譚根難辭其咎。 

                                            1924年9月,為培養中國革命空軍骨干力量,廣東軍事飛機學校在廣州東山大沙頭革命航空基地正式成立,其教學形式仿效蘇聯軍隊辦學模式,由蘇聯顧問、革命軍政府航空局代局長李糜兼任校長,聘請蘇聯、德國空軍軍官任教官。這是中國最早建立起來的一所新型軍事航空學校,它與黃埔軍校同為國共合作的成果。 

                                            該校在第一次國內革命戰爭時期開辦兩期。第一期僅招10名學生,為黃埔軍校第一期優秀畢業生和廣東飛行修理廠工人,當時擁有4架教練機。1925年7月李糜回國后,航空局長張治中兼任校長,黃光銳、關榮、周寶衡等任教官,第二期招生20名。1927年,張惠長繼任校長,黃毓佩任教育長、丁紀徐任飛行主任,公開招收第三期學生甲班35名、乙班65名,學制兩年。 

                                            6月30日正午12時,張惠長舉行就職典禮,軍政機關及各界來賓百余人參加觀禮者。張惠長致詞稱:“此次受國民政府委任充當航空學校校長,深恐不克勝任。但受政府付以重大責任,義不容辭,以后惟有為國家努力工作,于最短期間造就多數航空人才,以為國民革命軍北伐之后盾。” 

                                            1928年3月,周寶衡繼任校長。1929年4月甲班32人畢業,見習員7人;10月乙班36人畢業,見習員4人。同年11月,該校招收第四期學員100名。翌年1月,周寶衡被免職,國民革命軍第八路軍指揮部航空處長張惠長兼任校長,改稱廣東空軍學校。 

                                            此后,楊官宇、劉植炎先后代理校長,因學校管理不善,引起學生罷課,紛紛離校,只有51人留校。1931年4月,該校50余名畢業生均至各飛機隊任職,成為廣東空軍的中堅力量。 

                                            廣東空軍的發展之所以在中國近代航空史上占有重要地位,不僅因為其空軍建立最早、規模最大、航空教育成績卓著,還因為其擁有將飛機引入中國的第一人、素有“中國航空之父”美譽的馮如,對催生水上飛機做出重要貢獻的華僑飛行家譚根,曾在北伐戰爭中率領空軍屢建功勛的國民政府空軍司令張惠長,首創中國長途航空飛行的抗日英雄黃光銳,因研制出中國第一架“樂士文”國產飛機而被譽為“中國革命空軍之父”的楊仙逸,曾任廣東航空局飛機廠廠長、廣東航空學校校長的楊官宇等一大批廣東籍的中國航空先驅,他們對我國近代航空事業做出了重要貢獻。 

                                            撰文/供圖 周利成

                                            (來源:《羊城晚報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
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