廣州文史
                                          全文檢索:
                                          首頁 文史資訊 廣州文史 黨團史料 多媒體文史館 專題文史 文史爭鳴 區縣文史 工作學習園地 辛亥革命
                                          彩票12 www.8499e.com | www.064wy.com | 922630.com | www.42842816.com | 8290g.com | www.tx27.com | www.pj9654.com | qq365t.com | www.c22365.com | www.65707e.com | www.563012.com | 22556o.com | www.vipxl.3009300930093009.com | meigaomei2017.com | www.58665w.com | 76543d.com | www.2566y7.com | 192222.com | www.3933p.cc | www.4625x.com | 2443.com | www.9895t.com | 6766gg.com | www.cb3988.com | www.58777f.com | dfs12345.com | www.12455u.com | www.pu1828.com | www.99638o.com | www.hg701.com | mg7899.com | www.1035f.com | www.cr1112.com | 2418t.com | www.dpcq2.hly.com | 029.com | www.9356v.com | 915590.com | www.055o.cc | www.7830e.com | 5443b.com | www.4809x.com | m35151.com | www.250756.com | www.20199tt.com | 3640pp.com | www.910xj.com | www.444171.com | 88682.com | www.34788c.com | www.sjs06.com | blr6644.com | www.0600o.cc | www.8520e.com | 28758h.com | www.8905g.com | www.788698.com | 8901e.com | www.3775y.com | 1775d.com | s01234.com | www.7957988.com | www.spj57.com | 5589g.com | www.23636g.com | www.kj207.com | 3846b.com | www.zcwf1.com | www.ylg1212.com | 75959s.com | www.689144.com | www.132c73.com | jumboluck.com | www.rcw8866.com | www.848777i.com | 6688214app.com | 3474000.com | www.3775m.com | www.9679j.com | 3844w.com | www.912483.com | www.751cp2.com | 37570t.com | 97297m.com | www.37266.co | www.166349.com | vns8351.com | www.nnw6.com | www.14168c.com | www.383050.com | 760238.com | www.599047.com | www.55070f.com | 7792f.com | 9420j.com | www.hy5506.com | www.13555a.com | x77304.com | 4js345.com | www.16878y.com | www.4940w.com | 9435.cc | dj0001.com | www.hg8889.tw | www.pj3390.com | aa7570a.com | 1077bb.com | www.37377l.com | www.00013.net | 14680123.com | 02489.net | www.326477.com | www.81608f.com | www.pj6545.com | 915905963.com | 38365l.com | www.050.la | www.79095e.com | www.701707.com | 28288i.com | hg0491.com | www.727079.com | www.flb377.com | www.833898.com | 878365nn.com | wx3355.com | www.43818t.com | www.jinniu00.com | www.bf855.com | 7720d.net | www.140018.com | www.xpj53516.com | www.06982.com | p5555.com | 88993e.com | www.099192.com | www.12455i.com | www.4444yh.vip | www.yh6996.com | a2146.com | www.444510.com | 7989b.com | 0207200.com | 3018nn.com | www.755806.com | www.0600o.cc | www.5504f.com | www.39695v.com | feicai0534.com | 7605t.com | 3807kk.com | www.dfyk3.com | www.13434a.com | www.yingle33.com | www.zdj70.com | 2546.com | 678210.com | 26444x.com | www.466161.com | www.574119.com | www.472705.com | www.300msc.com | 6766bb.com | 61366d.com | 2643m.com | 256777i.com | www.528335.com | www.799941.com | www.009329.com | www.d8867.com | www.422442.com | 80850m.com | 3559cp.net | 655660088.com | www.34788i.com | www.990733.com | www.3775p.com | www.huangma29.com | www.pj5938.com | www.yptang.com | 22556k.com | 66332007.com | 3559.la | meishimat.com | 0747uu.com | www.033916.com | www.657269.com | www.bet73v.com | www.9978bb.com | www.bet91489.com | www.19019n.com | www.6a555.com | www.900673.com | www.v1106.com | 3049f.com | 103boo.com | 3242k.com | 7893w08.com | 30007l.com | 4195l.com | 19990.com | 00773g.com | 22291166.com | am2948.com | www.582977.com | www.918io.com | www.9818a.cc | www.41518.com | www.9818j.cc | www.7793z.com | www.17wsz.com | www.okw2.com | www.769301.com | www.951077.com | www.979816.com | www.5xag.com | www.5xct.com | www.911050.com | www.39058.cc | www.cp8009.cc | www.c9667.com | www.hf6880.com | www.899342.com | www.701504.com | www.890752.com | www.757209.com | www.701504.com | www.621316.com | www.542672.com | www.458178.com | www.330875.com | www.820380.com | www.1477w.com | www.657zf.com | www.hm6788.com | www.793990.com | www.606530.com | www.332760.com | www.205883.com | yin3434.com | 68228m.com | www.401285.com | www.806721.com | www.235672.com | 18775j.com | sbc883.com | 01234vv.com | 2613h.com | 07322222.com | 1331ee.com | 30172266.com | pt138.com | nn3189.com | 8827mm.com | www.0636f.com | www.365168.cc | www.6347799.com | www.9785333.com | www.122cpb.com | www.jw799.com | www.cn365v.com | www.89599c.com | www.50685a.com | www.8905n.com | www.89894t.com | www.41855.cc | www.136506.com | 11989r.com | 98345m.com | 2096n.com | by9900.com | www.h7788c.com | www.000894.com | www.yingle33.com | www.69567u.com | www.153280.com | www.777768a.com | www.178385.com | 996622ii.com | 8547p.com | yth008.net | js61z.com | www.3643v.com | www.xpj3666.com | www.4136y.com | www.ejylc14.com | www.rrle6.com | 5622m.com | 2934u.com | 563703.com | 777k7.com | www.hg7575.com | www.hg7321.com | www.369038.com | www.12345603.cc | www.84499z.com | www.632599.com | 910277.com | 71707g.com | a77304.com | www.77759333.com | www.sscb88.cc | www.75600d.com | www.52303f.com | www.739750.com | 88894c.com | 2266hhgz.com | www.18xinli.cc | www.x8882.com | www.twcp05.com | www.16065q.com | www.096968.com | www.808913.com | 7742xx.com | 33vv8332.com | www.hg1733.com | www.bet63h.com | www.80075.com | jsok258.com | 4590t.com | 518cp22.com | www.pj5577.com | www.hr1222.com | www.740707.com | wxylc98953.com | 990.am | www.557588.com | www.00773v.com | www.0014h.com | 80850ff.com | 8722ffff.com | www.679suncity.com | www.rrqp999.com | www.477373.com | 54443.com | www.81866i.com | www.w948w.com | www.50054d.com | bct6688.com | 01885x.com | www.78am9999.com | www.0343w.com | www.cai345.cc | P7570.com | 66662007.com | www.52tyc.com | www.50026n.com | 3467x.am | 3225d.com | www.56655t.com | www.022j.cc | dh074.com | 23233f.com | www.32208d.com | www.33588h.com | 99111gg.com | 2629.com | www.71071u.com | www.c5905.com | 9007570.com | www.am0675.com | www.wns123h.com | www.388453.com | 3640dd.com | www.xpj9238.com | www.5446f.com | www.620557.com | 8299138.com | www.71088k.com | www.0601f.com | 02edu.com | 00778p.com | www.47506i.com | www.698771.com | l1915l.com | www.wns7657.com | www.33997g.com | 33771381.com | www.hg2207.com | www.i7764.com | www.824879.com | 3775o.com | www.8996hh.com | www.61655n.com | 365225.tw | www.9566879.com | www.63606m.com | www.263299.com | pjxianggang.com | www.35252p.com | www.653546.com | 28839v.com | www.2945c.com | www.621329.com | 8381x.com | www.a81b.cc | www.641477.com | v72227.com | www.?28558.com | www.912452.com | 38244p.com | www.hg2286.com | www.702309.com | 983888g.com | www.75jsjs.com | www.210639.com | 2373n.com | www.j3410.com | p3144.com | www.fcbmp.com | www.8d333.com | 3552v.com | www.607788.com | www.22csj.com | hg2886.com | www.85jsjs.com | www.41518i.com | www.86611v.com | www.js9999.bet | 8569811g.com | www.5118.cc | www.500232.com | u2649.com | www.068633.com | 4288a.com | www.wi4444.com | www.gyfc4.com | 2146.com | www.4521c.com | feicai0378.com | www.656022.com | www.lczg7.com | v1931.com | www.32031f.com | 9949t.com | www.yh400000.com | www.354611.com | 61652n.com | www.518pj.com | 0198855.com | www.54968.com | 2846g.com | www.4tgpd.com | www.853199.com | 2677hhh.com | www.ylylc08.com | 86811ee.com | www.5446rr.com | 2677ooo.com | www.msc83.com | www.288645.com | www.914700.net | www.5086r.com | 67877r.com | www.mgm777c.com | xy55355.com | www.js79900.com | 89777o.com | www.166459.com | www.132880.com | www.79884.com | www.858856.com | 2019u.cc | www.37193.cc | 8901j.com | www.06088.com | 24007.com | www.89789v.com | 9068ll.com | www.44118a.com | 22117g.com | www.hg8zz.com | 2864y.com | www.dfh281.com | hr1222.com | www.4739999.com | www.138017.com | www.sun7787.com | www.501340.com | www.alpkylc.com | www.613591.com | www.bet36578.com | www.550374.com | www.am0676.com | www.550347.com | www.boma0194.com | www.548411.com | www.56520e.com | www.511642.com | www.twcp999.com | www.510860.com | www.333133t.com | www.330275.com | www.35441777.com | bj499.com | www.t2005.net | 4195z.com | www.lfcp096.com | 8003822.com | www.16181q.com | 66300vip17.com | www.y8863.com | 3662c.com | www.211222.cc | 4242hd.com | www.77210h.com | v62365.com | www.35155g.com | cc1331.com | www.811672.com | www.9996oo.com | www.hcw332.com | www.hg3701.com | 915906545.com | www.77fh.com | 11473333.com | www.843881.com | 55899i.com | www.cpkk6.com | www.dh03035.com | www.103380.com | www.48tk.com | a83377.com | www.8c777.com | 55797n.com | www.3552k.com | www.223456r.com | www.52072g.com | www.9611ll.com | 3246.com | www.vip7033.com | 6220k.com | www.559748.com | www.ty66.com | ly88888885.com | www.4520077.com | 896320.com | www.565121.com | www.000894.com | 3202h.com | www.1466z.com | ca3055.com | www.810702.com | www.24671.net | 05075555.com | www.9978bb.com | ahga008.com | www.901025.com | www.xpj775.com | 0038633.com | www.551108.com | 55553885.com | www.021067.com | www.c44hh.com | 40033q.com | www.4189c.com | www.sbet567.net | 8030u.com | www.742988.com | 228888l.com | www.339215.com | www.938m.cc | 32212c.com | www.98599.cc | www.k87087.com | 28824c.com | www.16065j.com | www.pj5848.com | a2aaa.com | www.2234.im | 23233h.com | 55818d.com | www.2997771.com | 041122p.com | 8547ww.com | www.wns123c.com | lch8898.com | 0241h.com | www.3846cc.com | 78117700.com | 6363k.com | www.3775s.com | www.333177.com | 6601234.com | www.6687n.com | 1079.cc | jsjlb33.com | www.hg5985.com | www.00829h.com | 206402.com | www.07163g.com | www.166459.com | mmm01234.com | www.599399.com | www.5446ll.com | 2649kk.com | jbs6689.com | www.win1238.com | www.00829y.com | 5858394.com | www.ya638.com | www.esb125.com | 80850j.com | 3333904.com | www.2234.im | www.8694p.com | 7920com.com | www.en06.com | www.610160.COM | hhhhh222.com | 3559ww.com | www.55228d.com | www.665888001.com | 34k35.com | www.501207.com | www.292085.com | www.48373.com | 13222r.com | www.jcai1.com | www.8967u.com | 2246sun.com | ppjj02.com | www.371i.cc | www.198004.com | d8503.com | r61788.com | www.2109aa.com | www.xy048.com | 06006o.com | 33p88.cc | www.998924.com | www.10999j.com | www.85770u.com | 22995144.com | www.401269.com | www.4102w.com | www.6555567.com | 4018nn.com | JS1388k.com | www.71233hh.com | www.5566bifa.com | 588ttt.cc | 7736n.com | www.807266.com | www.63606v.com | www.649589.com | 6137l.com | 8827.cc | www.9478q.com | www.98698d.com | www.445887.com | 9737cc.me | www.50051u.com | www.70979.cc | www.85857t.com | www.pj5908.com | 0805q.com | 86811e.com | www.9356l.com | www.0169b.com | www.8694f.com | 7811o.com | 3202f.com | www.976527.com | www.32031x.com | www.h7733.com | 35252n.com | 923350.com | www.96386v.com | www.61233r.com | www.9737ss.me | www.7171msc.com | mg437700.com | 86688007.com | www.257660.com | www.3080.com | www.0022xpj.net | www.2078s.com | hhhhh333.com | qjdc555.com | 3650580.com | www.4189d.com | www.ee00668.com | www.xg189.com | www.bmw555888.com | gg4119.com | 4444sands.com | www.715920.com | www.0194000.com | www.1111yh.vip | www.xpj3778.com | hh3405.com | hbs48.com | 80567m.com | www.718322.com | www.3301855.com | www.hyi158.com | www.33224066.com | www.88jt09.com | 00446132.com | 2544b2.com | hgyz88.com | www.zcwf6.com | www.68993228.com | www.pj88f.com | www.hd66.am | www.88188b.cc | 00048x.com | 0610.com | 115502.com | www.186371.com | www.202115.com | www.6678578.com | www.5981r.com | www.22441.com | www.54541100.com | 8290.com | mm33.vip | 3678h.com | 8036tt.com | bet365ok03.com | www.690477.com | www.99048.cc | www.209337.com | www.44vn777.com | www.008520.com | www.pj5767.com | www.xpj1177.cc | 50000022.com | 3640.com | ca5033.com | 1018xpj.com | 12743.com | www.550436.com | www.kc53.com | www.60123f.com | www.sb5058.com | www.c33668.com | www.89.cc | www.j0055.com | www.yongligao.hk | www.flb0033.com | www.kf318.com | 2019t.cc | 2905.cc | 496gg.com | 3846y.com | 333hg.com | hgw168m.com | l15666.com | ude185.com | t000c.com | www.60007a.com | www.359932.com | www.701546.com | www.c1395.com | www.2875v.com | www.33997f.com | www.87668d.com | www.yl1981.com | www.sb8357.com | www.773560.com | www.58908b.com | www.630269.com | www.9170115.com | www.pj299299.com | www.667686.com | www.kj8888.com | www.8577l.cc | www.0055js.com | www.10050939.com | www.hg8997.com | www.588sun.com | www.777444d.com | www.40818g.com | www.yinhecc00.com | www.7435j.com | www.8124n.com | www.76060e.com | www.6666wnsr.com | www.ylg08.com | www.40818b.com | www.773114.com | www.xpj88007.com | www.330099f.com | www.7676760088.com | www.05125e.com | www.sun3388.com | www.133242.com | www.15960000.com | www.099989f.com | www.392066.com | www.mk926.com | www.55c668.com | www.99113u.com | www.xpj66696.com | www.91779v.com | www.xpj6.net | www.393008.com | www.1466j.com | www.300365.com | www.33997z.com | www.07xyc.com | www.912273.com | www.575872.com | www.153880.com | 28288tt.com | 123456.cc | 12772266.com | gg444000.com | 4808u.com | jidu0.com | qpby99.com | www.c6635.net | www.pj8610.com | www.kj853.com | www.ggl.99233l.com | www.55155f.com | www.mng55.com | www.hg988.com | www.vns2018.xyz | www.xb88tt.com | www.8667w.com | www.807735.com | www.108805.com | 33115w.com | 7811zz.com | 53358y.com | 2381l.com | www.5000bjl.com | www.33569900.com | www.033008.com | www.7415l.com | www.xpj55123.com | www.4323p.com | www.ch8944.com | www.dcw345.com | 11dd8331.com | 70082.com | 61323377.com | 11163399.com | www.81228m.com | www.jcbo13.com | www.8080999e.com | www.4331f.com | www.084wy.com | www.377591.com | 500000418.com | 009900w.com | 1591vip.com | www.a50336.com | www.hd66.am | www.7415vv.com | www.hg77740.com | www.11tdc.com | www.068639.com | 88119n.com | 36402211.com | 18775k.com | www.82533t.com | www.bb55826.com | www.81608g.com | www.fcff7.com | 876878.com | 80368r.com | 7742nn.com | www.am0677.com | www.246hao.com | www.38775ii.com | www.5854x.cc | www.001857.com | 091166.com | 86811h.com | www.hgbet00.com | www.m9478.com | www.350c9.com | www.lczg9.com | 8015p.com | 4880n.com | 47749l.com | www.qq349.com | www.47506t.com | www.9818y.cc | cidubbs.com | 1775s.com | 2851p.com | www.137185.com | www.9908598.com | www.6364p.com | 11124066.com | 3033d.com | www.86611j.com | www.1www.0079988.com | www.0011sun.com | www.979505.com | 54240088.com | 9309208.com | www.77537n.com | www.1133xpj.net | www.29277k.com | 4116m.com | 4288vv.com | www.3089c.com | www.668hyc.com | www.96386t.com | www.079776.com | jidu03.com | www.ylg3099.com | www.77c668.com | www.983439.com | www.047788.com | 2222k05.com | www.1133hg.com | www.C63.COM? | www.15355t.com | 66744.com | 61652a.com | www.9679d.com | www.xpjylc008.com | www.950633.com | 87965vv.com | c51ki64.com | www.00708.com | www.3978n.com | 99988807.com | 35222f.com | www.hai0000.com | www.xpj55123.com | www.507381.com | 0616.com | www.77yh765.com | www.mgm868006.com | www.ya838.com | 5651j.com | 5295uu.com | www.85857l.com | www.00840r.com | bet99949.com | 2595n.com | www.dfh200.com | www.4189a.com | sjxche.com | tyc1514.com | www.bb55826.com | www.fcsj.com | 6194js.com | www.38200d.com | www.1030360.com | www.592909.com | 983888f.com | www.2846i.com | www.7240f.com | flp666.com | e86811.com | www.8833tm.com | www.9155g.com | 3678iii.com | www.7168801.com | www.30k0048.com | www.577062.com | 4444c9.com | www.993639.com | www.3790022.com | z77bb.com | 6830c.com | www.hg8kk.com | www.607356.com | 23599y.com | www.msc355.com | www.78700h.com | 78119900.com | 3167.com | www.3983184.com | www.djcp234.com | 0076556.com | www.siji5.com | www.flcb1.com | 92266z.com | www.744suncity.com | www.78700h.com | 97886699.com | www.119946.com | www.99094t.com | 11443885.com | wns88.com | www.509261.com | 98982325.com | 2381m.com | www.47506v.com | www.60123a.com | blr8033.com | www.00772o.com | www.256238.com | 3685z.com | www.1111yh.vip | www.329209.com | 2490e.com | www.5446uu.com | www.187380.com | js8800.net | www.8850w8.com | www.c67801.com | feicai0477.com | www.80188v.com | 66300vip21.com | 87680q.com | www.665888.com | 500000755.com | www.hg5588.me | www.99677s.com | 58539999.com | www.3877msc.com | www.055m.cc | 3242v.com | www.304902.com | www.186379.com | 3009i.com | www.68365j.com | 2223890.com | www.330099w.com | www.50051vip.com | yh22444.com | www.lfcp099.com | www.342377.com | 11989k.com | www.68365y.com | 55545l.com | www.hotelisboa.com | www.sjgc9.com | k00333.com | www.3116h.com | 835.cc | www.v3301.com | www.83565.com | 4955t.com | www.bmw810.net | www.233104.com | 111hg.com | www.9646o.com | 3678uu.com | www.5049g.com | www.89894d.com | www.xj5577.com | www.60108m.com | 22098z.com | www.4136b.com | 20772288.com | www.25288k.com | www.hm5688.com | r99.com | www.ii4625.com | l2146.com | www.js664.com | www.220755.com | www.jqb5.com | www.58699.cc | x33d.vip | www.161184.com | ly88888880.com | www.678404.com | www.68682o.com | www.bet9339.com | www.03czj.com | 009900h.com | www.42842817.com | ctxcp300.com | www.5446ww.com | 9964k.com | www.899866.com | www.xinyc2.com | www.bet36365.com | www.ascp7.com | 518cp-4.com | www.12455u.com | 9170110.com | www.js89o.vip | w9629.com | www.848777n.com | 88119n.com | www.c51jj.vip |
                                          ·感恩西瓜園 踏上新征程
                                          ·“廣東女子圖鑒”進化史
                                          ·百年廣鐵,“國運所系”
                                          ·從喜羊羊到熊出沒 他們都是“廣東制造”
                                          ·“94新生代”是這樣煉成的
                                          ·一套《流淌的歌聲》 救了一個“太平洋”
                                          ·“濟世為公”老字號何濟公永遠的光榮與夢想
                                          ·小小手電筒 風靡老廣州
                                          ·廣州最后一批抄表員去哪了?
                                          ·最后的荔灣廣船
                                          ·柯拜船塢 中國最早的“外資企業”
                                          ·廣鐘,一段湮沒了的輝煌歷程
                                          ·西關地名 悄藏廣緞記憶 貴族定制 見證廣彩輝煌
                                          ·56歲2號船臺謝幕 廣船老廠區搬遷加速
                                          ·“中國第一家”橡膠廠的興衰
                                          更多>> 
                                          工業
                                          這件琺瑯器見證清代繁復華麗的審美

                                            中國古代工藝品中最晚形成的著名品種是琺瑯,其中比較常見且為人們熟知的品種,就是俗稱的景泰藍。它大約于13世紀末葉由阿拉伯國家傳入中國。在中華民族博大精深的藝術土壤上,這種以金屬為胎, 填敷琺瑯釉料燒制而成的作品, 很快融匯了民族的傳統風格, 生長為一顆璀璨的明珠。  

                                          金胎鏨胎琺瑯嵌畫琺瑯執壺 圖:@故宮博物院 
                                          清 乾隆鏨胎琺瑯金鼎 廣州博物館藏 
                                          清 鏨胎琺瑯太平有象 圖:@故宮博物院
                                           

                                          明宣德 鏨胎琺瑯纏枝蓮紋盒 圖:@故宮博物院

                                            廣州中,收藏著一件“清乾隆鏨胎琺瑯金鼎”。這是一件晶瑩華麗、流光溢彩的精品,是當時廣州工匠制作并呈送宮廷的,代表了工匠之手所能達到的最高水準。 

                                            “廣造”琺瑯匠人 是宮內的倚重 

                                            這件琺瑯金鼎雙耳作“云花”式,鼓扁腹,圜底,三獸首柱足,通體飾有紅、黃、藍、綠、白五色花紋圖案,以黃色細弦紋為底,肩飾綠色如意紋,腹飾蝠云紋及團壽字,紋飾圖案寓意“福祿壽”,腹外底有“乾隆年制”楷書四字方款,帶蓋,蓋頂飾有綠色翡翠一顆。造型精美華麗。 

                                            這件精品是當時廣州工匠的作品,并呈送北京成為皇家用品。后來由故宮博物院調撥廣州博物館收藏。廣博研究人員余曼指出,清代鏨胎琺瑯工藝的制作中心是廣州。廣州鏨胎琺瑯是在歐洲金屬工藝和琺瑯工藝影響下發展起來的。由于廣州在清代是對歐美貿易的唯一門戶,許多外國人都由此進入中國。琺瑯制作就是受了他們的影響而發展到一個很高的水平。 

                                            當時,清宮內造辦處的琺瑯作匠人大多是由粵海關選入,稱為“南匠”。廣州琺瑯制作的鼎盛期在乾隆年間。乾隆帝曾下旨在長春園北部修建方外觀、海晏堂、遠瀛觀等西洋式建筑群。室內陳設需要大量巨型鏨胎琺瑯器,大大促進了廣州鏨胎琺瑯的發展。余曼指出:“廣州鏨胎琺瑯造型奇特,裝飾豪華,圖案有蓮花大卷葉、纏枝蓮、夔龍、夔鳳、拐子、回紋、萬字不到頭、芭蕉等,結構嚴謹,布局繁密,已經看不出歐洲圖案的影響。” 

                                            貿易往往伴隨著文化交流,而且是雙向的。當外國人滿載著絲綢、瓷器、茶葉以及各種中國特色器物的船只從黃埔港出發銷往海外的同時,他們也留下了各種思想和技藝并產生深刻的影響。廣東琺瑯就是其中之一。有研究者指出,它是中國工匠在學習外國工藝基礎上再創造的精華,是中外手工藝術碰撞的火花。廣東琺瑯主要以金屬為胎體,工藝種類包括畫琺瑯、掐絲琺瑯、鏨胎琺瑯等。按廣東省博物館副研究館員丁蕾的說法,廣東琺瑯最初受到關注,全因康熙、雍正、乾隆三帝對歐洲銅胎畫琺瑯制品的垂青,“17世紀末廣東已經擁有能制作該種工藝的匠人。為了中國也能制作出這種奢侈品,在康熙帝積極推動下,清宮‘造辦處’引進來自廣東的技術、人員和原料,并邀請外國傳教士一同研發試驗,最后成功燒制,建立銅胎、瓷胎、玻璃胎、宜興胎四種胎質的中國畫琺瑯系統”。廣州的潘淳、楊士章及江西的宋潔等十幾人,即為選派進宮的琺瑯工匠。乾隆時期始逐漸將銅胎畫琺瑯委托給粵海關制作,隨之而來的結果是將清宮畫琺瑯的技藝與風格又回傳廣東。 

                                            在乾隆朝 琺瑯工藝發展到鼎盛 

                                            琺瑯是以礦物質的硅、鉛丹、硼砂、長石、石英等以適當的比例混合,分別加入各種不同顏色的金屬氧化物,經焙燒研磨制成粉末狀彩料后,根據不同的工藝,填嵌或繪制于金屬胎體上的一種藝術創作過程。金屬鏨刻技法是我國古代一種傳統的金屬器加工方法,早在商周時代,當時的工匠們就將這一技藝廣泛運用到青銅器的裝飾上,并制作出圖案精美的青銅工藝品。 

                                            琺瑯是外來工藝名稱的音譯。我國古代文獻中“佛菻”“佛郎”“拂郎”“發藍”等詞均為琺瑯的舊稱,是因譯名不統一而出現多種寫法而已,實為同一物質或同一工藝。明清鑒賞著錄中的“大食窯”“佛郎嵌”“鬼國嵌”等名稱,也都是指琺瑯工藝的不同制品。清代以來又稱為“景泰藍”,清內廷稱燒造琺瑯工藝的作坊為“琺瑯作(廠)”。 

                                            具體到鏨胎琺瑯器,顧名思義是將金屬雕鏨技法運用于琺瑯器的制作過程中。它的具體制作工藝過程是先在已制成的金屬胎上,按照圖案設計要求描繪紋樣輪廓線,然后運用金屬雕鏨技法,在紋樣輪廓線以外的空白處,進行雕鏨減地,使得紋樣輪廓線起凸,再在其下凹處點施琺瑯釉料,經焙燒、磨光、鍍金而成。清代乾隆年間鏨胎琺瑯器的制作, 除以廣州為最具代表性之外,內廷琺瑯作和揚州也偶有制之。內廷琺瑯作所制的鏨胎琺瑯器,鍍金厚重堅實,充分顯示了皇家的尊貴氣派,釉色純正渾厚,并多以深色琺瑯釉作底。 

                                            據統計,故宮博物院現藏的幾十個類別共計186萬余件珍貴文物當中,琺瑯類器物近7000件,其時代上自元明,下至清末,其中又以乾隆時期為主。其主要來源有:宮廷御用作坊的制品;各地官府奉旨承造的宮廷御用品;還有地方以各種原因進到宮中的作品。這些作品代表了不同時期琺瑯工藝的最高水平,是一份完整的中國金屬胎琺瑯工藝發展演變歷史的極為珍貴的實物資料。 

                                            似乎只有繁瑣華麗才能得到乾隆的嘉獎 

                                            西歐鏨胎方深受拜占庭掐絲琺瑯的影響。13世紀成吉思汗的遠征軍隊橫跨歐亞大陸,蒙古鐵騎每每攻占城池唯有身懷技藝的工匠得以免殺,或“取工匠隨軍”或“取工匠分于各營”,這條“惟匠得免”的政策大體可以肯定大食掐絲琺瑯工匠被虜隨軍成為工奴,后又來到我國。不少中外學者都認為,從理論上說,掐絲和鏨胎這兩種琺瑯技術是蒙古遠征軍有機會接觸到,并逐漸傳入中國的。 

                                            明天順三年(1459年)的《新增格古要論》寫道:“以銅作身,用藥燒成五色花者,與佛郎嵌相似……今云南人在京多作酒盞。俗呼曰‘鬼國嵌’。”同時講到“內府作者,細潤可愛”。“佛郎嵌”又稱“鏨胎琺瑯”,我國早期的作品較少見,最早的1件作品就是一件現藏于故宮的明宣德款鏨胎琺瑯纏枝蓮紋盒。盒里夾了一個黃簽,記載著這件圓盒是乾隆四十年(1775年)從太仆寺撤下來的。盒上款識為“宣德年制”。 

                                            學者陳麗華指出,作為琺瑯器制作的高峰,清乾隆時期的琺瑯裝飾手法繁縟華麗。紋飾繁縟、堆砌的裝飾風格成為乾隆朝琺瑯工藝的一大特色,似乎只有繁瑣華麗,才能得到乾隆皇帝的嘉獎。造辦處活計檔中有這樣的記載,例如,乾隆元年,乾隆在看過太監呈覽琺瑯作制作的鼻煙壺后,傳旨:“鼻煙壺上花卉畫得甚稀,再畫時畫得稠密些。”乾隆四十八年又傳旨:“照稿往細致里畫,別畫糙了,欽此。”等等。乾隆皇帝的這種審美自然引領了這一時期的工藝品的裝飾風格。乾隆時期的琺瑯工藝在制作技術上已經精致成熟,故常常是將琺瑯和各種不同的工藝技法巧妙結合于一體,表現出極大的完美性。如掐絲琺瑯與畫琺瑯工藝的結合,掐絲琺瑯與鏨胎琺瑯工藝的結合,掐絲琺瑯與鏨花工藝的結合,琺瑯工藝與鑲嵌珠寶工藝的結合等。 

                                            金屬胎(主要是銅)琺瑯器既有金屬的貴重和堅固,又有琺瑯釉料的光滑與裝飾性,同時具有耐磨和耐腐蝕性。作為皇家生活用具,它體現出皇帝的尊貴地位,能為宮廷增添色彩。乾隆年間制作了數以萬計的金屬胎琺瑯器皿,留下了眾多的作品,而堪稱稀世之珍的則是那些為數不多的精品,它們都具有極高的工藝水平和濃厚的時代特征,令人過目不忘、流連忘返。由于存量大,清代金屬胎琺瑯器皿,在宮廷中舉目皆是,到處可見。它們上可作為典章用品和祭祀工具,下可作為陳設用品和日常生活用具,在清宮中發揮著至關重要的作用,描繪著中國藝美術史上極其光輝燦爛的一頁。

                                            文、圖(除署名外)/廣州日報全媒體記者 卜松竹 

                                          (來源:《廣州日報》)

                                          版權所有:中國人民政治協商會議廣州市委員會
                                          www.8499e.com | www.064wy.com | 922630.com | www.42842816.com | 8290g.com | www.tx27.com | www.pj9654.com | qq365t.com | www.c22365.com | www.65707e.com | www.563012.com | 22556o.com | www.vipxl.3009300930093009.com | meigaomei2017.com | www.58665w.com | 76543d.com | www.2566y7.com | 192222.com | www.3933p.cc | www.4625x.com | 2443.com | www.9895t.com | 6766gg.com | www.cb3988.com | www.58777f.com | dfs12345.com | www.12455u.com | www.pu1828.com | www.99638o.com | www.hg701.com | mg7899.com | www.1035f.com | www.cr1112.com | 2418t.com | www.dpcq2.hly.com | 029.com | www.9356v.com | 915590.com | www.055o.cc | www.7830e.com | 5443b.com | www.4809x.com | m35151.com | www.250756.com | www.20199tt.com | 3640pp.com | www.910xj.com | www.444171.com | 88682.com | www.34788c.com | www.sjs06.com | blr6644.com | www.0600o.cc | www.8520e.com | 28758h.com | www.8905g.com | www.788698.com | 8901e.com | www.3775y.com | 1775d.com | s01234.com | www.7957988.com | www.spj57.com | 5589g.com | www.23636g.com | www.kj207.com | 3846b.com | www.zcwf1.com | www.ylg1212.com | 75959s.com | www.689144.com | www.132c73.com | jumboluck.com | www.rcw8866.com | www.848777i.com | 6688214app.com | 3474000.com | www.3775m.com | www.9679j.com | 3844w.com | www.912483.com | www.751cp2.com | 37570t.com | 97297m.com | www.37266.co | www.166349.com | vns8351.com | www.nnw6.com | www.14168c.com | www.383050.com | 760238.com | www.599047.com | www.55070f.com | 7792f.com | 9420j.com | www.hy5506.com | www.13555a.com | x77304.com | 4js345.com | www.16878y.com | www.4940w.com | 9435.cc | dj0001.com | www.hg8889.tw | www.pj3390.com | aa7570a.com | 1077bb.com | www.37377l.com | www.00013.net | 14680123.com | 02489.net | www.326477.com | www.81608f.com | www.pj6545.com | 915905963.com | 38365l.com | www.050.la | www.79095e.com | www.701707.com | 28288i.com | hg0491.com | www.727079.com | www.flb377.com | www.833898.com | 878365nn.com | wx3355.com | www.43818t.com | www.jinniu00.com | www.bf855.com | 7720d.net | www.140018.com | www.xpj53516.com | www.06982.com | p5555.com | 88993e.com | www.099192.com | www.12455i.com | www.4444yh.vip | www.yh6996.com | a2146.com | www.444510.com | 7989b.com | 0207200.com | 3018nn.com | www.755806.com | www.0600o.cc | www.5504f.com | www.39695v.com | feicai0534.com | 7605t.com | 3807kk.com | www.dfyk3.com | www.13434a.com | www.yingle33.com | www.zdj70.com | 2546.com | 678210.com | 26444x.com | www.466161.com | www.574119.com | www.472705.com | www.300msc.com | 6766bb.com | 61366d.com | 2643m.com | 256777i.com | www.528335.com | www.799941.com | www.009329.com | www.d8867.com | www.422442.com | 80850m.com | 3559cp.net | 655660088.com | www.34788i.com | www.990733.com | www.3775p.com | www.huangma29.com | www.pj5938.com | www.yptang.com | 22556k.com | 66332007.com | 3559.la | meishimat.com | 0747uu.com | www.033916.com | www.657269.com | www.bet73v.com | www.9978bb.com | www.bet91489.com | www.19019n.com | www.6a555.com | www.900673.com | www.v1106.com | 3049f.com | 103boo.com | 3242k.com | 7893w08.com | 30007l.com | 4195l.com | 19990.com | 00773g.com | 22291166.com | am2948.com | www.582977.com | www.918io.com | www.9818a.cc | www.41518.com | www.9818j.cc | www.7793z.com | www.17wsz.com | www.okw2.com | www.769301.com | www.951077.com | www.979816.com | www.5xag.com | www.5xct.com | www.911050.com | www.39058.cc | www.cp8009.cc | www.c9667.com | www.hf6880.com | www.899342.com | www.701504.com | www.890752.com | www.757209.com | www.701504.com | www.621316.com | www.542672.com | www.458178.com | www.330875.com | www.820380.com | www.1477w.com | www.657zf.com | www.hm6788.com | www.793990.com | www.606530.com | www.332760.com | www.205883.com | yin3434.com | 68228m.com | www.401285.com | www.806721.com | www.235672.com | 18775j.com | sbc883.com | 01234vv.com | 2613h.com | 07322222.com | 1331ee.com | 30172266.com | pt138.com | nn3189.com | 8827mm.com | www.0636f.com | www.365168.cc | www.6347799.com | www.9785333.com | www.122cpb.com | www.jw799.com | www.cn365v.com | www.89599c.com | www.50685a.com | www.8905n.com | www.89894t.com | www.41855.cc | www.136506.com | 11989r.com | 98345m.com | 2096n.com | by9900.com | www.h7788c.com | www.000894.com | www.yingle33.com | www.69567u.com | www.153280.com | www.777768a.com | www.178385.com | 996622ii.com | 8547p.com | yth008.net | js61z.com | www.3643v.com | www.xpj3666.com | www.4136y.com | www.ejylc14.com | www.rrle6.com | 5622m.com | 2934u.com | 563703.com | 777k7.com | www.hg7575.com | www.hg7321.com | www.369038.com | www.12345603.cc | www.84499z.com | www.632599.com | 910277.com | 71707g.com | a77304.com | www.77759333.com | www.sscb88.cc | www.75600d.com | www.52303f.com | www.739750.com | 88894c.com | 2266hhgz.com | www.18xinli.cc | www.x8882.com | www.twcp05.com | www.16065q.com | www.096968.com | www.808913.com | 7742xx.com | 33vv8332.com | www.hg1733.com | www.bet63h.com | www.80075.com | jsok258.com | 4590t.com | 518cp22.com | www.pj5577.com | www.hr1222.com | www.740707.com | wxylc98953.com | 990.am | www.557588.com | www.00773v.com | www.0014h.com | 80850ff.com | 8722ffff.com | www.679suncity.com | www.rrqp999.com | www.477373.com | 54443.com | www.81866i.com | www.w948w.com | www.50054d.com | bct6688.com | 01885x.com | www.78am9999.com | www.0343w.com | www.cai345.cc | P7570.com | 66662007.com | www.52tyc.com | www.50026n.com | 3467x.am | 3225d.com | www.56655t.com | www.022j.cc | dh074.com | 23233f.com | www.32208d.com | www.33588h.com | 99111gg.com | 2629.com | www.71071u.com | www.c5905.com | 9007570.com | www.am0675.com | www.wns123h.com | www.388453.com | 3640dd.com | www.xpj9238.com | www.5446f.com | www.620557.com | 8299138.com | www.71088k.com | www.0601f.com | 02edu.com | 00778p.com | www.47506i.com | www.698771.com | l1915l.com | www.wns7657.com | www.33997g.com | 33771381.com | www.hg2207.com | www.i7764.com | www.824879.com | 3775o.com | www.8996hh.com | www.61655n.com | 365225.tw | www.9566879.com | www.63606m.com | www.263299.com | pjxianggang.com | www.35252p.com | www.653546.com | 28839v.com | www.2945c.com | www.621329.com | 8381x.com | www.a81b.cc | www.641477.com | v72227.com | www.?28558.com | www.912452.com | 38244p.com | www.hg2286.com | www.702309.com | 983888g.com | www.75jsjs.com | www.210639.com | 2373n.com | www.j3410.com | p3144.com | www.fcbmp.com | www.8d333.com | 3552v.com | www.607788.com | www.22csj.com | hg2886.com | www.85jsjs.com | www.41518i.com | www.86611v.com | www.js9999.bet | 8569811g.com | www.5118.cc | www.500232.com | u2649.com | www.068633.com | 4288a.com | www.wi4444.com | www.gyfc4.com | 2146.com | www.4521c.com | feicai0378.com | www.656022.com | www.lczg7.com | v1931.com | www.32031f.com | 9949t.com | www.yh400000.com | www.354611.com | 61652n.com | www.518pj.com | 0198855.com | www.54968.com | 2846g.com | www.4tgpd.com | www.853199.com | 2677hhh.com | www.ylylc08.com | 86811ee.com | www.5446rr.com | 2677ooo.com | www.msc83.com | www.288645.com | www.914700.net | www.5086r.com | 67877r.com | www.mgm777c.com | xy55355.com | www.js79900.com | 89777o.com | www.166459.com | www.132880.com | www.79884.com | www.858856.com | 2019u.cc | www.37193.cc | 8901j.com | www.06088.com | 24007.com | www.89789v.com | 9068ll.com | www.44118a.com | 22117g.com | www.hg8zz.com | 2864y.com | www.dfh281.com | hr1222.com | www.4739999.com | www.138017.com | www.sun7787.com | www.501340.com | www.alpkylc.com | www.613591.com | www.bet36578.com | www.550374.com | www.am0676.com | www.550347.com | www.boma0194.com | www.548411.com | www.56520e.com | www.511642.com | www.twcp999.com | www.510860.com | www.333133t.com | www.330275.com | www.35441777.com | bj499.com | www.t2005.net | 4195z.com | www.lfcp096.com | 8003822.com | www.16181q.com | 66300vip17.com | www.y8863.com | 3662c.com | www.211222.cc | 4242hd.com | www.77210h.com | v62365.com | www.35155g.com | cc1331.com | www.811672.com | www.9996oo.com | www.hcw332.com | www.hg3701.com | 915906545.com | www.77fh.com | 11473333.com | www.843881.com | 55899i.com | www.cpkk6.com | www.dh03035.com | www.103380.com | www.48tk.com | a83377.com | www.8c777.com | 55797n.com | www.3552k.com | www.223456r.com | www.52072g.com | www.9611ll.com | 3246.com | www.vip7033.com | 6220k.com | www.559748.com | www.ty66.com | ly88888885.com | www.4520077.com | 896320.com | www.565121.com | www.000894.com | 3202h.com | www.1466z.com | ca3055.com | www.810702.com | www.24671.net | 05075555.com | www.9978bb.com | ahga008.com | www.901025.com | www.xpj775.com | 0038633.com | www.551108.com | 55553885.com | www.021067.com | www.c44hh.com | 40033q.com | www.4189c.com | www.sbet567.net | 8030u.com | www.742988.com | 228888l.com | www.339215.com | www.938m.cc | 32212c.com | www.98599.cc | www.k87087.com | 28824c.com | www.16065j.com | www.pj5848.com | a2aaa.com | www.2234.im | 23233h.com | 55818d.com | www.2997771.com | 041122p.com | 8547ww.com | www.wns123c.com | lch8898.com | 0241h.com | www.3846cc.com | 78117700.com | 6363k.com | www.3775s.com | www.333177.com | 6601234.com | www.6687n.com | 1079.cc | jsjlb33.com | www.hg5985.com | www.00829h.com | 206402.com | www.07163g.com | www.166459.com | mmm01234.com | www.599399.com | www.5446ll.com | 2649kk.com | jbs6689.com | www.win1238.com | www.00829y.com | 5858394.com | www.ya638.com | www.esb125.com | 80850j.com | 3333904.com | www.2234.im | www.8694p.com | 7920com.com | www.en06.com | www.610160.COM | hhhhh222.com | 3559ww.com | www.55228d.com | www.665888001.com | 34k35.com | www.501207.com | www.292085.com | www.48373.com | 13222r.com | www.jcai1.com | www.8967u.com | 2246sun.com | ppjj02.com | www.371i.cc | www.198004.com | d8503.com | r61788.com | www.2109aa.com | www.xy048.com | 06006o.com | 33p88.cc | www.998924.com | www.10999j.com | www.85770u.com | 22995144.com | www.401269.com | www.4102w.com | www.6555567.com | 4018nn.com | JS1388k.com | www.71233hh.com | www.5566bifa.com | 588ttt.cc | 7736n.com | www.807266.com | www.63606v.com | www.649589.com | 6137l.com | 8827.cc | www.9478q.com | www.98698d.com | www.445887.com | 9737cc.me | www.50051u.com | www.70979.cc | www.85857t.com | www.pj5908.com | 0805q.com | 86811e.com | www.9356l.com | www.0169b.com | www.8694f.com | 7811o.com | 3202f.com | www.976527.com | www.32031x.com | www.h7733.com | 35252n.com | 923350.com | www.96386v.com | www.61233r.com | www.9737ss.me | www.7171msc.com | mg437700.com | 86688007.com | www.257660.com | www.3080.com | www.0022xpj.net | www.2078s.com | hhhhh333.com | qjdc555.com | 3650580.com | www.4189d.com | www.ee00668.com | www.xg189.com | www.bmw555888.com | gg4119.com | 4444sands.com | www.715920.com | www.0194000.com | www.1111yh.vip | www.xpj3778.com | hh3405.com | hbs48.com | 80567m.com | www.718322.com | www.3301855.com | www.hyi158.com | www.33224066.com | www.88jt09.com | 00446132.com | 2544b2.com | hgyz88.com | www.zcwf6.com | www.68993228.com | www.pj88f.com | www.hd66.am | www.88188b.cc | 00048x.com | 0610.com | 115502.com | www.186371.com | www.202115.com | www.6678578.com | www.5981r.com | www.22441.com | www.54541100.com | 8290.com | mm33.vip | 3678h.com | 8036tt.com | bet365ok03.com | www.690477.com | www.99048.cc | www.209337.com | www.44vn777.com | www.008520.com | www.pj5767.com | www.xpj1177.cc | 50000022.com | 3640.com | ca5033.com | 1018xpj.com | 12743.com | www.550436.com | www.kc53.com | www.60123f.com | www.sb5058.com | www.c33668.com | www.89.cc | www.j0055.com | www.yongligao.hk | www.flb0033.com | www.kf318.com | 2019t.cc | 2905.cc | 496gg.com | 3846y.com | 333hg.com | hgw168m.com | l15666.com | ude185.com | t000c.com | www.60007a.com | www.359932.com | www.701546.com | www.c1395.com | www.2875v.com | www.33997f.com | www.87668d.com | www.yl1981.com | www.sb8357.com | www.773560.com | www.58908b.com | www.630269.com | www.9170115.com | www.pj299299.com | www.667686.com | www.kj8888.com | www.8577l.cc | www.0055js.com | www.10050939.com | www.hg8997.com | www.588sun.com | www.777444d.com | www.40818g.com | www.yinhecc00.com | www.7435j.com | www.8124n.com | www.76060e.com | www.6666wnsr.com | www.ylg08.com | www.40818b.com | www.773114.com | www.xpj88007.com | www.330099f.com | www.7676760088.com | www.05125e.com | www.sun3388.com | www.133242.com | www.15960000.com | www.099989f.com | www.392066.com | www.mk926.com | www.55c668.com | www.99113u.com | www.xpj66696.com | www.91779v.com | www.xpj6.net | www.393008.com | www.1466j.com | www.300365.com | www.33997z.com | www.07xyc.com | www.912273.com | www.575872.com | www.153880.com | 28288tt.com | 123456.cc | 12772266.com | gg444000.com | 4808u.com | jidu0.com | qpby99.com | www.c6635.net | www.pj8610.com | www.kj853.com | www.ggl.99233l.com | www.55155f.com | www.mng55.com | www.hg988.com | www.vns2018.xyz | www.xb88tt.com | www.8667w.com | www.807735.com | www.108805.com | 33115w.com | 7811zz.com | 53358y.com | 2381l.com | www.5000bjl.com | www.33569900.com | www.033008.com | www.7415l.com | www.xpj55123.com | www.4323p.com | www.ch8944.com | www.dcw345.com | 11dd8331.com | 70082.com | 61323377.com | 11163399.com | www.81228m.com | www.jcbo13.com | www.8080999e.com | www.4331f.com | www.084wy.com | www.377591.com | 500000418.com | 009900w.com | 1591vip.com | www.a50336.com | www.hd66.am | www.7415vv.com | www.hg77740.com | www.11tdc.com | www.068639.com | 88119n.com | 36402211.com | 18775k.com | www.82533t.com | www.bb55826.com | www.81608g.com | www.fcff7.com | 876878.com | 80368r.com | 7742nn.com | www.am0677.com | www.246hao.com | www.38775ii.com | www.5854x.cc | www.001857.com | 091166.com | 86811h.com | www.hgbet00.com | www.m9478.com | www.350c9.com | www.lczg9.com | 8015p.com | 4880n.com | 47749l.com | www.qq349.com | www.47506t.com | www.9818y.cc | cidubbs.com | 1775s.com | 2851p.com | www.137185.com | www.9908598.com | www.6364p.com | 11124066.com | 3033d.com | www.86611j.com | www.1www.0079988.com | www.0011sun.com | www.979505.com | 54240088.com | 9309208.com | www.77537n.com | www.1133xpj.net | www.29277k.com | 4116m.com | 4288vv.com | www.3089c.com | www.668hyc.com | www.96386t.com | www.079776.com | jidu03.com | www.ylg3099.com | www.77c668.com | www.983439.com | www.047788.com | 2222k05.com | www.1133hg.com | www.C63.COM? | www.15355t.com | 66744.com | 61652a.com | www.9679d.com | www.xpjylc008.com | www.950633.com | 87965vv.com | c51ki64.com | www.00708.com | www.3978n.com | 99988807.com | 35222f.com | www.hai0000.com | www.xpj55123.com | www.507381.com | 0616.com | www.77yh765.com | www.mgm868006.com | www.ya838.com | 5651j.com | 5295uu.com | www.85857l.com | www.00840r.com | bet99949.com | 2595n.com | www.dfh200.com | www.4189a.com | sjxche.com | tyc1514.com | www.bb55826.com | www.fcsj.com | 6194js.com | www.38200d.com | www.1030360.com | www.592909.com | 983888f.com | www.2846i.com | www.7240f.com | flp666.com | e86811.com | www.8833tm.com | www.9155g.com | 3678iii.com | www.7168801.com | www.30k0048.com | www.577062.com | 4444c9.com | www.993639.com | www.3790022.com | z77bb.com | 6830c.com | www.hg8kk.com | www.607356.com | 23599y.com | www.msc355.com | www.78700h.com | 78119900.com | 3167.com | www.3983184.com | www.djcp234.com | 0076556.com | www.siji5.com | www.flcb1.com | 92266z.com | www.744suncity.com | www.78700h.com | 97886699.com | www.119946.com | www.99094t.com | 11443885.com | wns88.com | www.509261.com | 98982325.com | 2381m.com | www.47506v.com | www.60123a.com | blr8033.com | www.00772o.com | www.256238.com | 3685z.com | www.1111yh.vip | www.329209.com | 2490e.com | www.5446uu.com | www.187380.com | js8800.net | www.8850w8.com | www.c67801.com | feicai0477.com | www.80188v.com | 66300vip21.com | 87680q.com | www.665888.com | 500000755.com | www.hg5588.me | www.99677s.com | 58539999.com | www.3877msc.com | www.055m.cc | 3242v.com | www.304902.com | www.186379.com | 3009i.com | www.68365j.com | 2223890.com | www.330099w.com | www.50051vip.com | yh22444.com | www.lfcp099.com | www.342377.com | 11989k.com | www.68365y.com | 55545l.com | www.hotelisboa.com | www.sjgc9.com | k00333.com | www.3116h.com | 835.cc | www.v3301.com | www.83565.com | 4955t.com | www.bmw810.net | www.233104.com | 111hg.com | www.9646o.com | 3678uu.com | www.5049g.com | www.89894d.com | www.xj5577.com | www.60108m.com | 22098z.com | www.4136b.com | 20772288.com | www.25288k.com | www.hm5688.com | r99.com | www.ii4625.com | l2146.com | www.js664.com | www.220755.com | www.jqb5.com | www.58699.cc | x33d.vip | www.161184.com | ly88888880.com | www.678404.com | www.68682o.com | www.bet9339.com | www.03czj.com | 009900h.com | www.42842817.com | ctxcp300.com | www.5446ww.com | 9964k.com | www.899866.com | www.xinyc2.com | www.bet36365.com | www.ascp7.com | 518cp-4.com | www.12455u.com | 9170110.com | www.js89o.vip | w9629.com | www.848777n.com | 88119n.com | www.c51jj.vip |